Visit the International Biochar Initiative Visit the Bioenergy Lists Visit Dr. Paul Taylor's 'The Biochar Revolution' site Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation Visit Dr. TLUD - be inspired! The Aprovecho Sustainability Education Center - home of the famous 'stove camp' Clean Cooking Catalog - most comprehensive catalog of cookstoves on the internet IWA Tiers of Performance Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy's GEO portal Read about 'Charmaster Dolph's' biochar exploits Learn about important biochar research in Oz Biochar Industries - biochar for sale in NSW Carbon farming (eg. biochar) for direct action? The secret of El Dorado - a must see The Japan Biochar Association The Ithaka Institute Illinois Biochar Backyard Biochar Finger Lakes Biochar Aqueous Solutions - Biochar for water filtration Kon-Tiki: The democratisation of biochar production Dr Paul Taylor's youtube channel The Kon-Tiki in pictures Dr Hugh McLaughlin's NextChar biochar resources Digital Commons - explore free full-text articles Dr Bruce Logan's portal for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) Hemp for Supercapacitors - carbonisation of hemp bast fibres (into carbon nanosheets) for supercapacitors Hemp for Supercapacitors - the video Biochar activated by oxygen plasma for supercapacitors 'Biochar activated by oxygen plasma for supercapacitors' - additional info in the free online patent application 'The secrets of El Dorado viewed through a microbial perspective' - ties together the importance of electron transfer in the biochar substrate -relates to previous MFC and supercapacitor research The Geobacter Project - maybe used for an inoculant for the biochar-compost fuel cell A quick overview of phytoliths Comparative analysis of the microbial communities in agricultural soil amended with enhanced biochars or traditional fertilisers Effects of Enriched Biochars Containing Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles on Mycorrhizal Colonisation, Plant Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Soil Quality Improvement A Combination of Biochar–Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties Clearly a bold approach to Carbon sequestration in a big data, eco-social and citizen scientist kind of way
Encyclopedia of Life Appropedia - Appropriate Technology projects and more Plants for a Future database - awesome search and extensive links Practical Plants - built on top of Plants for a Future database but rarely updated Permies: a big crowd of permaculture goofballs Permaculture Global - permaculture projects from around the world Milkwood Permaculture The Food Forest StreetBank Ripe near me Resilience - Articles about sustainability The Australia Institute Beyond Zero Emissions Degrowth Wiki about renewable energy - very extensive though still in beta Climate Debate Daily Hemp for Victory - the original video Office of Industrial Hemp and Medicinal Cannabis (SA) Industrial Hemp Association of South Australia A diverse look at food security and sovereignty Lots of interesting links to go with 'The Carbon Farming Solution' by Eric Toensmeier Vineyard Agroecology - lots of links and research papers A great general resource for agroecology UN: Only Small Farmers and Agroecology Can Feed the World Australian Institute of Agroecology ResearchGate - open access to scientific literature Grow your own nutrition - Brix An extensive medicinal and culinary herb reference Another handy medicinal and culinary herb reference A carbon-based photovoltaic (PV) cell Iota - a low-powered/low carbon footprint virtual/cryptocurrency for goods and service exchange in IoT - decentralised distributed ledger in the 'Tangle' - not hackable by a quantum computer ZapGo - a startup on the forefront of C-ion technology for energy storage solutions Suaoki G500 - a well-designed solar generator - woud be even better with Carbon ion tech! Allpowers 21W solar generator with battery - great value! (just add graphene) The future of broadband internet The Level Market | Relief & Humanitarian Supplies - heaps of awesome tech and room for improvement Probably the world's most efficient solar PV cell Finally - a commercially available graphene composite power bank
Disclaimer: As much as I love apptech, the technology itself shouldn't be that which takes over our lives. What's more important is that plenty of biochar is produced and integrated into the economies of the world so that over time we can eventually and safely drawdown Carbon out of the atmosphere and prevent or even reverse global climate heating and restore a safe climate. The change to the environment that biochar could bring is partly known and partly unknown but the possibilities are endless and continually fascinate me!
A hexagonal flat-packable biochar kiln. Panels (13.5kg each) can be transported in the back of a station wagon, trailer or moved around in a field. Volume is 1438L. Built with 2mm hot rolled and pickled steel (not recommended - 2mm is too thin - the kiln warped at the base and pickling offers no increase to tensile strength plus it uses an acid bath which is environmentally toxic).
'Catch and store energy', 'Obtain a yield' and 'Produce no waste'. Forestry waste sun dried over Spring, processed and ready to burn!! Previous feedstock dried in a drying shed. The small stuff gets hand-processed, the medium stuff processed with a battery-powered circular saw (hopefully next-gen will have a graphene or graphene-like substance battery storage) and the large stuff processed with a medium-sized chainsaw (preferably Stihl - love that fossil fuel! Wood used in an indoor combustion heater for space heating over the cooler months).
Final/third snuff layer - I added another 20cm of soil on top, spread out evenly. I also added soil around the base, mainly at the panel edges to prevent spontaneous recombustion since there were minor air leaks (an issue with flatpacked designs). The soil at the base will also insulate the biochar during the baking process which should last at least one day.
Modifications made to V1: 2mm hot rolled mild steel has been upgraded to 3mm HW350 'weathering' 'corten' steel - which doubled the cost but is not pickled, can be left assembled outside in the weather for a semi-permanent installation (gains a rusty patina but will not rot to the core) and has a higher tensile strength (450-550 ts) . So, the kiln should last much longer without any warping issues compared to V1. The key/slot system has been simplified from 3 keys/slots to 2 keys/slots per panel side - seems to assemble much more easily compared to V1. The keys are now more robust - longer and wider. Slot size is more generous in width, though perhaps a little too generous with wiggle room to allow easy key insertion and handle the increased width of 3mm steel. The panels have been reversed in assembly with the double folds now on the outside - this enables an anchor point for using star pickets to stabilise the panels during assembly. Assembly requires that the kiln is surrounded by soft ground in order to anchor the star pickets (using a sledge hammer) but the surface beneath the kiln needs to be level so that all panels lock in correctly. This can be achieved using a base plate (see below). The base will also increase the temperature of the fire by reflecting heat back into it and also create better insulation for the baking process eg. 24 hours, following a burn.
Prototyping begins on May 16, 2018.
Wider keys, narrower key gaps and smaller slots. Wide slots for removable (last) panel. I will use 3mm hot rolled steel for rental kilns since they are AUD$160 cheaper than kilns made from weathering steel and will only be erected for 24 hours so they won't be left outside to rust for any extended period. I was quoted AUD$505 (inc. GST) for V3 off 3mm hot rolled steel. Can't wait to build it! The 'Carbon' V3 should be perfect for converting agroforestry and vineyard waste to biochar!
The dxf can be viewed in 'DWG Trueview' in Windows, 'DWG Fastview' in iOS and 'DWG Fastview' in Android. Ready to be printed on a CNC Plasma cutter or even better, a CNC Laser Cutter, preferably a 500W fiber optic laser cutter (see below) that cuts up to 6mm Carbon steel and 3mm stainless steel - also handy for cutting TLUD components eg. 'Permastove' V2 (see in TLUD section)! I would predict from my preliminary research that laser cutters can be found in many major cities in most industrialised nations. A global survival technology combination in a nut shell. If the fiber laser cutter doesn't exist then consider buying it with aid and development funds from industrialised nations (that created most of the world's Carbon pollution in order to climb up the energy ladder)...Please note that if you want to 'significantly' modify the design, skip prototyping V3 and produce 'Carbon' V3 knock-offs, please acknowledge Permachar original authorship of the 'Carbon'; 'Kon-Tiki' and 'Moki' origins and the Creative Commons 'Attribution 4.0 International License' and please remove my logo - no voluntary AUD$50 payment per kiln produced will then be required. However, from an R & D perspective, modification of the 'Carbon' V3 at this early stage is not really recommended until it has been prototyped by a number of users for at least 6 months. The 'Carbon' V4 can then build on user feedback and become a better and more open source kiln (like the 'Eve V' tablet computer) than what it is now with no voluntary payments required for beta testing (unheard of in the software community - sorry about that) and producers can put on their own logo - muddy waters but allows producers to take a degree of ownership of the kilns they sell. Subsequent versions of the 'Carbon' will be left to the user community to develop (while acknowledging Permachar original authorship of the 'Carbon'; 'Kon-Tiki' and 'Moki' origins and the Creative Commons 'Attribution 4.0 International License')...A focus then can also be made by the user community on setting up 'Carbon Credits' or 'CO2 certificates' (various schemes to think about eg.https://www.biochar-journal.org/en/ct/88) for the users who produce biochar (based on the amount of biochar they produce) with the 'Carbon' kilns (or other relatively clean biochar kilns or cleaner biochar kilns such as the Kon-Tiki cone - think 'Clean emissions' V 'Logistics' V 'Jobs' V' 'Growth' V 'Prosperity' V 'Happiness' V ... - what will be the optimal combination to drawdown Carbon?) therefore both kiln producers and kiln users would be financially rewarded and the planet might not overheat ;)
The bottom line of what most funds are looking at:
1. What you want to do?
2. Why do you want to do it?
3. How will you do it?
4. How much will it cost in total? Break down what money you will spend on each activity? The timeframe of when those activities will happen and end?
5. What people will benefit from the project? How many people?
6. Who will be your implementing partners?
7. What are the potential risks that can occur throughout the project life time?
8. What are the levels of risks, high, medium or low?
9. How will those risks be minimised or avoided?
10. What are the contributions in cash or in-kind? How much?
There are additional considerations too such as ecological benefits and benefits to women and children.
-use a solid metal fire rake to remove ground debris at least 5 metres around the kiln and make sure no overhanging branches are above the kiln with a clearance of less than 5 metres. If you've got a wheelbarrow, place the raked debris in the wheelbarrow and shift to a burn pile at least 10 metres from the kiln
-Have a pile of soil in case of emergency fire snuffing
-Get a backpack sprayer filled with water on standby in case of spot fires OR if near a water tank, attach a small pump and get an adequate length of green line 1" rural pipe that will attach to the pump outlet and reach around the circumference of the kiln
-Buy or borrow a pair of welding gloves for operation (the long blue ones) - the kiln flame has been known to 'jump out' of the kiln and reach your hands
-Clothing - don't wear any synthetics - preferably heavy organic cotton
-Work boots - If you're in Oz, Rossi or Blundstone are always handy - just make sure they are steel capped
-Safety glasses - always good when dealing with fire and feedstock
An imperfect/uneven foundation may lead to an air gap between 2 or more panels. Choose a relatively flat area of ground within a 5 metre vegetation clearance next to and above the kiln spot and create a fairly flat 1.2m x 1.2m square eg. remove rocks, tufts of grass and smooth out the soil with a shovel or rake. Place the base plate on top of the fairly flat square. This will now provide a perfectly flat foundation for the kiln and reflect heat into the fire plus insulate and reduce heat loss during baking
-Have the snuff layer ingredients within 1 metre from the kiln for easy access - just shovel on top of the fire!
-This is definitely an experimental area. I've been using a combination of bentonite clay (layer 1) and Jeffries Veggie soil (Layer 2). Could even add some biochar on top once you've stockpiled enough
-Worth doing a blog in itself - may do one later in the year on a rainy day
1- Chainsaw and related accessories
Good for initial processing of biomass eg. forestry waste, vineyard waste etc.
The Stihl brand is probably the way to go
2- Curved handheld tree saw
Handy when you are collecting forestry waste eg. small dead branches that don't snap off cleanly or for pruning lower branches larger than 10-15mm that can't be easily cut with a chainsaw
The Spear & Jackson brand will do the job nicely
Handy for pruning lower and higher branches less than 10-15mm.
The Fiskar brand is a little expensive but includes a high quality steel cutter and extendable handles
4- Cordless battery-powered circular saw.
I only use the saw on feedstock that can't be broken with two hands or across my shin. If it's more than a couple of inches thick I tend to stack it separately for cutting with a chainsaw and use it in my pyramid kiln or combustion heater.
The Ozito brand does the job very nicely and they're relatively cheap - worth buying the big battery as it lasts longer in the field and can also be used with other Ozito powered tools. It's a bit dodgy but I tie off the safety with some string so you can have one hand operation and hold the feedstock with the other hand
Ensure the feedstock is less than 25% moisture content - can use a pronged moisture meter from China eg. MD-4G. The less moisture the feedstock has the faster and more cleanly it will combust
-Create long windrows of feedstock along East-West so they are North or South facing
-Cover the windrows with heavy duty tarps if bad weather approaching and secure with anything heavy you've got eg. Besser blocks, long wooden poles, bricks, rocks, logs etc.
-When the feedstock is dry, if you've got a large shed then move it by wheelbarrow into the shed - This will remove a final percentage of moisture in addition to the solar drying. Only bother to shed dry if the shed is within reasonably close distance to the site of the kiln so there is efficient transportation of the feedstock to the kiln
-Careful moving panels - don't drop them as the keys might distort on impact (however the V3 keys should be strong enough to take a fall)
-Assemble on top of the base plate
-Assemble with panel folds on outside, use to secure 7 x 1.8m star droppers for balance during assembly and use
- 2 person assembly is much easier than 1 person (can be done but not as fun)!
Assemble first 3 panels. Keyed panel in middle first (logo panel), lean against a fold on base plate to steady and support with 2 star droppers. Drop in second and third slotted panels on either side and add star dropper support to each panel centre top
Attach one keyed panel with star dropper support at centre top on one side and one keyed panel without a star dropper on the other side. May need to reattach star droppers on second and third panels
Drop in final (slotted) panel with 14mm slots - first side drop onto keyed panel without star dropper - probably will need to move both of the panels around a little for insertion. On the second and last side of the slotted panel, drop onto keyed panel with star dropper. Once the final panel is in place, add a star dropper at centre top to secure it. This slotted panel (opposite the logo panel) will b lifted and removed when emptying the kiln, hence the 14mm slots for easier access.
-When filling kiln before ignition, don't need to process feedstock - put it straight into the kiln
-Follow the Kon-Tiki operating instructions on Dr Paul Taylor's youtube channel (link above)
-Burn until biochar is up to the top of the top key/slot. This will provide enough space for the snuff layers. The fire doesn't get too hot as well as it would if it was filled to the top.
-Baking? Experimental. The closer you get to Terra Preta de Indio (or rather, Terra Preta Australis) the better it is for growing plants. I've got to do some testing but I'm thinking at the moment that 24 hours should be long enough. The baking breaks the biochar into smaller pieces which increases the overall surface area which is good for almost every application. I'm also going to try baking without soil on the outside since the 3mm steel should provide adequate insulation for 24 hours - needs to be tested (maybe at 6 hour intervals with a laser 'infrared thermometer', also available from China for a low cost eg. The 'dodocool' GM900 works well and cost about AUD$30
-Snuffing will not use water i.e. these kilns will now be 'water-free' (with the exception of a backpack sprayer for spot fires/dousing the biochar after emptying). This saves on water, allows
more remote field deployment and protects the 3mm hot rolled steel from corrosion and rusting.
-Ensure original 3 panels assembled are still supported by star droppers
-Remove star droppers on keyed panels adjacent to the last panel (14mm slotted) assembled
-Remove star dropper on last panel
-To empty kiln, lift up last panel and remove. Shovel biochar mixture through kiln opening into a wheelbarrow and transport to inoculation bath, Permafert midden, trailer, ute or bag it up for car transport.
-Can use a backpack sprayer filled with water (and inoculants - bonus) (or 1" rural pipe 'gravity fed' from a nearby water tank - or even water from a 'Furphy') to water down the biochar before transport or bagging in order to cool it down and prevent 'spontaneous recombustion' (biochar goes up in flames again).
-If using the 'Carbon' in a semi-permanent setup, you could scrape off the top half of the snuff layers and shovel into a pile 1m from the kiln for the next burn. This will economise the use of snuff ingredients and reduce transportation demands
The neverending question. I've thought about this many times and I think it depends on where you are and what resources eg. laser cutter, steel, feedstock, land, people etc and market you can access. As a basic approach though, I would say start yourself with one 'Carbon' kiln, stockpile many litres of biochar or Permafert, sell it to the locals and build interest and your market, take the profit and build a few more kilns with accessories (see below) and start a 24 hour kiln rental service, do some cheap biochar-making demonstrations for the public with a rental kiln, rent for a season then hopefully people will want to buy them for their properties if they can justify it's benefits eg. establishing agroforestry systems, new vineyard polycultures etc. If you're feeling really energetic, use profit from all of that and if you can access cheap 'clean'/'toxic chemical-free' IBCs, start a wicking bed business as well! Value add where you can and you might even make the planet greener and fairer than the planet that you inherited...
I think a good rental service will provide the following equipment to the customer:
-Kiln and base plate
The customer could provide:
-Ingredients for snuff layers
-Water for backpack sprayer and inoculants
All this Research and Development (R&D) takes time, perseverance, passion and money. I want to provide good user support too...If you sell kilns or rent kilns (which is what I am going to
do), please let me know so I can put the kilns on a map. I'll also establish an online forum for a 'Carbon' user community once there are enough prototypers/beta testers to justify
it. Please share some money for further 'Carbon' kiln R&D via a paypal account (free and easy to set up if you don't have one) at the following web address (URL):
or just click the link below... A recommended amount is AUD$50 for every 'Carbon' V3 kiln manufactured. Thanks!!
Inoculation baths - built from IBCs that have had their top cut off (subsequently used for wicking beds) and outlet (on the inside of the IBC) siliconed with fibreglass flywire mesh for coarse filtration. Remove as much of the snuff layer as possible and transfer to a Permafert midden (see below). The remainder biochar mix can be shovelled into a wheelbarrow and transferred into one of these baths. Water added (eg. from a rainwater tank off the roof of a drying shed) to a level near the top then add whatever you want depending on what plants you want to grow in what conditions (in winery terminology, it's called the 'terroir') eg. Neutrog GoGo juice (probiotic bacteria), Nutritech Platform (fungus -apprently 95% dormant, waiting for 'Response' produced in Oz by a Kiwi), Seasol/Microtech Organics liquid kelp (or any liquid kelp), Nutritech NPK 'Hotmix' (a high temperature produced liquid compound made of NPK - better than your standard NPK), worm castings (from a worm farm - preferably yours), worm wee (from a worm farm - preferably yours), rock dust (more minerals), molasses (bacteria food), Nitrogen/urea, indigenous micro-organisms (IMO) from a soil sample from the site that you want to put the Permafert to grow plants, etc. Soak brew for a couple of days, stirring a couple of times each day, then siphon off the liquid into a bucket and bucket/transfer into the second empty inoculation bath ready for the next batch of biochar mix (thereby using less additional ingredients for the next batch). In other words, you will alternate between the two baths for each consecutive batch and will top up with water and additional ingredients. Double the number of inoculation baths if the volume from the burn is above approximately 600L (which is the case for the 'Carbon'), so two baths will become four baths. After siphoning off the liquid, tip over the bath to empty contents then shovel inoculated mix into a wheelbarrow and transport to a Permafert midden. The advantage of using an inoculation bath V adding the biochar mix from the kiln straight onto the Permafert midden and using a weed sprayer backpack for liquid ingredients is a higher rate and deeper penetration of ingredient inoculation (in particular microbes) into the 3D biochar matrix.
Permafert midden - similar to that used by the original Amazonian Indians to make Terra Preta de Indio. Add Jeffries veggie soil, granular bentonite clay, biochar - from the kiln PLUS whatever was in the inoculation bath OR if not using an inoculation bath, whatever can be poured into a large weed sprayer backpack (say 15 litres) and sprayed onto the midden eg. Neutrog GoGo juice (probiotic bacteria), molasses (bacteria food), Seasol (or liquid kelp - for minerals), worm wee (from a worm farm - preferably yours), nitrogen/urea (from the 'ol piss bucket), Nutritech NPK 'Hotmix' (a high temperature produced liquid compound made of NPK - better than your standard NPK but expensive), Nutritech Platform (fungus -apparently 95% dormant, waiting for 'Response' produced in Oz by a Kiwi), rock dust (from the local quarry - minerals), indigenous micro-organisms (IMO) from a soil sample from the site that you want to put the Permafert to grow plants AND add (without the weed sprayer backpack and in addition to what was in the inoculation bath): manure (eg. cow, chicken, pig, horse, goat, etc.), black soldier flies (BSF) that eat the manure and produce larvae, red earthworms that feed on the BSF larvae residue (from your local supplier), grape marc (from a local winery - full of minerals, nutrients, bacteria and fungus), etc. Once again, what you add to your Permafert midden depends on which plants you want to grow (and what they need to grow) and the 'terroir'. I also add organic kitchen scraps to the midden and dig them in to add organic matter. You could also use a separate worm farm for the scraps which has the benefit of worm castings and worm wee as byproducts which can then be added to the midden (see above). When I add the contents of the ol' piss bucket, I make a depression at the top of the midden and pour in the contents so that it distributes through the centre of the pile. Now is a good time to water down the pile if the moisture content is too low in order to dilute the urea and keep the midden moist and turn every day or two - this will distribute the midden contents more evenly and ensure moisture gets to the bacteria, fungus, manure, earthworms and the general 'soil food web' that you are trying to kickstart. If the midden gets too large to enable easy turning, I make another one. If that gets too big, I make a third one and so on...
*Taylor, Dr. Paul (ed.), 'The biochar revolution: Transforming agriculture and environment', 2010, Global Publishing Group, Australia
*Woods, William I. (ed.) et al, 'Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision', 2009, Springer, USA
* Lowenfels, Jeff and Lewis, Wayne, 'Teaming with microbes: A gardener's guide to the soil food web', 2006, Timber Press, USA
*Lowenfels, Jeff, 'Teaming with nutrients: The organic gardener's guide to optimizing plant nutrition', 2016, Timber Press, USA
*Author unknown, 'Great garden formulas: The ultimate book of mix-it-yourself concoctions for your garden', 2006, publisher and place unknown
*Reddy, Rohini, 'Cho's global natural farming', 2011, SARRA, South Korea
Many more to mention plus google searches for 'soil' and 'compost' will reveal lots of links...
-A 20mm insulation air gap that should increase fuel efficiency while at the same time radiating some heat off the middle cylinder to the outer cylinder. The outer cylinder should be safe to touch while the stove is in operation. The theory is using a 3 cylinder stove creates a sweet spot for metal lifespan, fuel efficiency and safety. Need to compare water boiling times and outer metal surface temperatures with and without the middle cylinder
-The handles are double so 1.5mm goes to 3mm which is hopefully thick and robust enough. The double welded tabs should provide strong attachment of the handle to the outer cylinder - maybe orientate North-South so they don't act as hinges when the stove is tipped over!
-An independent pot stand that is suspended above a 1.25kg Milo tin riser and Permastove. The legs are made from bamboo (any variety) and the metal cross should be able to support flat-based pans as well as round-based pans/woks. If the fuel runs out, the Permastove can be easily removed and replaced with another Permastove (with fuel) without any need for moving the pan/pot/wok during cooking.
-The lid tabs could be screwed into the outer cylinder with 3.2mm x 20mm galv screws which would help anchor the cylinders, increase pressure in the secondary air gap by reducing air leakage at the top
-For USB fan control I found this: https://www.coolerguys.com/products/coolerguys-manual-speed-controller-for-usb-fans It means now you can adjust the (5V USB centrifugal computer) fan speed which will adjust the flame size for better cooking control - just like a deluxe gas stove ring!
-2 spare grates per stove. The inner cylinder will eventually wear out from exposure to fire and need replacement at some stage but probably not before the grate will burn out in the middle. Replacing the grate will extend the life of the inner cylinder. For convenience the central grate should be able to be snipped out with good tin snips and replaced with a spare one that can be screwed in with 3.2mm x 20mm galv screws (can be purchased from Bunnings).
-The power bank could be the Zendure X6, found on Indiegogo
-The X6 could be powered from a 60W Megasolar PV panel which has USB C PD output, DC and USB A
-Why not a TLUD dehydrator? There's always the ol' solar bed frame...
-Why not a solar oven when the sun's shining and a TLUD when the sun's not shining?
The 'Permastove' V3 is more complicated to build compared with the 'Carbon' V3. There are more parts and more things need to be done to the metal. I've been told that the double fold on the 'Carbon' V3 is tricky but doable for a skilled press brake operator. The 'Permastove' V3 however requires rolling, bending and welding in addition to laser cutting (which is a skill in itself). I'm thinking that 500W fiber optic laser cutters could be purchased in a given region and located at a centralised workshop for both the kilns and stoves. The 'Permastove' V3 could be distributed as a flatpacked kit to local workshops that can do rolling, bending and welding. These workshops could then act as stove and fuel distrubution hubs. For stoves, I prefer this model over a centralised workshop that does everything but only creates distant jobs through the biochar related supply chains but in some cases centralisation may be the only option. It makes more sense to do the cutting and folding of the 'Carbon' V3 at a centralised workshop then distribute it from there. For both stoves and kilns it depends on local preferences too eg. What's the most appropriate way of doing business? Where is the unemployment? What transportation links are available? Most importantly, where is the market?
I've summarised the above kilns and stoves according to biomass feedstock size. Note that my preference for biochar apptech is completely biased since I designed most of what I'm about to recommend (with a lot of help from my friends):
*Small feedstock eg. Pellets/sticks/coconut shell/corn cob/rice husk etc. - Try the 'Permastove' V3 (beta) for cooking and biochar making
*Small to medium feedstock eg. large sticks, bamboo, small cut logs etc. - Try the 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' (3 in 1 BBQ, firepit, biochar making)
*Medium to large feedstock eg. Bamboo, brush, agroforestry waste, rice straw, small branches etc. - Try the Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V3 (beta) - biomass 'waste' removal, biochar making, heat on a cold day
*Large feedstock eg. cut and split logs etc. - slow combustion stove/wood-fired Aga (I don't think I can improve/redesign these - quite refined tech) - produces small amounts of biochar but mostly ash (a good source of minerals and alkaline pH adjustment for acidic soils). Also good for space heating, heating water eg. wetbacking cogen for a solar hot water system, water pastuerisation, making a hot drink; slow cooking
Fenugreek (front) and Dill (back) seedlings using biochar in a fancy potting mix with sphagnum moss and peat. Note that biochar has a higher water holding capacity (WHC) than the original potting mix. Adding it increases the overall WHC. I also add a low concentration of Seasol and GoGo Juice to the irrigation water from my 15L weed sprayer backpack in order enhance root growth and potting mix microbial activity.
Can use microwave tech from Kiwis on biomass eg. agricultural waste, and produce a Graphene-like substance to replace expensive and less sustainable Graphene.
Closed loop for traditional farmers in SE Asia
Harvest bamboo/rice straw/rice husk-->chop up bamboo/dry bamboo/rice straw/rice husk feedstock-->cook taro on TLUD gasifier/cogeneration via biochar kiln->add the biochar to the animal feed (+ use biochar for water filtration)-->feed to water buffaloe/cow/pig-->livestock shits->take the manure/biochar complex and add to biodigester (biochar also reduces smell)-->collect the gas for cooking/electricity-->take the biodigester effluent/byproduct and add to soil-->grow the taro/rice/bamboo-->harvest (back to the start)
Could hemp grow in the desert?
The idea I am proposing involves growing acacias, coppicing them, making biochar, creating a biochar fertiliser called Permafert (inc. Response), digging swales slightly off contour (to avoid 'wet feet'), adding the Permafert to the bottom of the swales, placing microdrippers along the top using the 'Measured Irrigation' system, growing hemp (using an appropriate cultivar) then using the hemp for more biochar, housing (using hempcrete and replacing the lime with biochar: 'hempcharcrete'), food (hemp seed, hemp protein, hemp oil), biodiesel (as a last resort) and many other uses. I would also like to trial biochar filtration for groundwater from a bore and investigate water quality as a result of the filtration - used for 'Measured Irrigation' of the hemp plants. Irrigate when the swales have a below optimal moisture content determined by swale cores and evaporation levels. Start with a 1 hectare trial. Anyone interested?
If you found this information useful, please share some money for further Permachar R & D. A recommended amount is AUD$10 - more if you feel really generous. Thanks!! Please use the link below...