Biochar links

Visit the International Biochar Initiative Visit the Bioenergy Lists Visit Dr. Paul Taylor's 'The Biochar Revolution' site Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation Visit Dr. TLUD - be inspired! The Aprovecho Sustainability Education Center - home of the famous 'stove camp' Clean Cooking Catalog - most comprehensive catalog of cookstoves on the internet IWA Tiers of Performance Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy's GEO portal Read about 'Charmaster Dolph's' biochar exploits Learn about important biochar research in Oz Biochar Industries - biochar for sale in NSW Carbon farming (eg. biochar) for direct action? The secret of El Dorado - a must see The Japan Biochar Association The Ithaka Institute Illinois Biochar Backyard Biochar Finger Lakes Biochar Aqueous Solutions - Biochar for water filtration Kon-Tiki: The democratisation of biochar production Dr Paul Taylor's youtube channel The Kon-Tiki in pictures Dr Hugh McLaughlin's NextChar biochar resources Digital Commons - explore free full-text articles Dr Bruce Logan's portal for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) Hemp for Supercapacitors - carbonisation of hemp bast fibres (into carbon nanosheets) for supercapacitors Hemp for Supercapacitors - the video Biochar activated by oxygen plasma for supercapacitors 'Biochar activated by oxygen plasma for supercapacitors' - additional info in the free online patent application 'The secrets of El Dorado viewed through a microbial perspective' - ties together the importance of electron transfer in the biochar substrate -relates to previous MFC and supercapacitor research The Geobacter Project - maybe used for an inoculant for the biochar-compost fuel cell A quick overview of phytoliths Comparative analysis of the microbial communities in agricultural soil amended with enhanced biochars or traditional fertilisers Effects of Enriched Biochars Containing Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles on Mycorrhizal Colonisation, Plant Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Soil Quality Improvement A Combination of Biochar–Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties Clearly a bold approach to Carbon sequestration in a big data, eco-social and citizen scientist kind of way

Business model links

Other links

Encyclopedia of Life Appropedia - Appropriate Technology projects and more Plants for a Future database - awesome search and extensive links Practical Plants - built on top of Plants for a Future database but rarely updated Permies: a big crowd of permaculture goofballs Permaculture Global - permaculture projects from around the world Milkwood Permaculture The Food Forest StreetBank Ripe near me Resilience - Articles about sustainability The Australia Institute Beyond Zero Emissions Degrowth Wiki about renewable energy - very extensive though still in beta Climate Debate Daily Hemp for Victory - the original video Office of Industrial Hemp and Medicinal Cannabis (SA) Industrial Hemp Association of South Australia A diverse look at food security and sovereignty Lots of interesting links to go with 'The Carbon Farming Solution' by Eric Toensmeier Vineyard Agroecology - lots of links and research papers A great general resource for agroecology UN: Only Small Farmers and Agroecology Can Feed the World Australian Institute of Agroecology ResearchGate - open access to scientific literature Grow your own nutrition - Brix An extensive medicinal and culinary herb reference Another handy medicinal and culinary herb reference A carbon-based photovoltaic (PV) cell Iota - a low-powered/low carbon footprint virtual/cryptocurrency for goods and service exchange in IoT - decentralised distributed ledger in the 'Tangle' - not hackable by a quantum computer ZapGo - a startup on the forefront of C-ion technology for energy storage solutions Suaoki G500 - a well-designed solar generator - woud be even better with Carbon ion tech! Allpowers 21W solar generator with battery - great value! (just add graphene) The future of broadband internet The Level Market | Relief & Humanitarian Supplies - heaps of awesome tech and room for improvement Probably the world's most efficient solar PV cell Finally - a commercially available graphene composite power bank

Resources

Disclaimer: As much as I love apptech, the technology itself shouldn't be that which takes over our lives. What's more important is that plenty of biochar is produced and integrated into the economies of the world so that over time we can eventually and safely drawdown Carbon out of the atmosphere and prevent or even reverse global climate heating and restore a safe climate. The change to the environment that biochar could bring is partly known and partly unknown but the possibilities are endless and continually fascinate me!

Biochar kiln information - a kiln for (almost) every application...

The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V1

The original design for the Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V1
As the title suggests. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
Flat-Tiki Carbon.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 9.6 MB
Design notes for the Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V3 - hopefully makes some logical sense...as opposed to nonsense
Design notes.zip
Compressed Archive in ZIP Format 14.0 MB

A hexagonal flat-packable biochar kiln. Panels (13.5kg each) can be transported in the back of a station wagon, trailer or moved around in a field. Volume is 1438L. Built with 2mm hot rolled and pickled steel (not recommended - 2mm is too thin - the kiln warped at the base and pickling offers no increase to tensile strength plus it uses an acid bath which is environmentally toxic).

'Catch and store energy', 'Obtain a yield' and 'Produce no waste'. Forestry waste sun dried over Spring, processed and ready to burn!! Previous feedstock dried in a drying shed. The small stuff gets hand-processed, the medium stuff processed with a battery-powered circular saw (hopefully next-gen will have a graphene or graphene-like substance battery storage) and the large stuff processed with a medium-sized chainsaw (preferably Stihl - love that fossil fuel! Wood used in an indoor combustion heater for space heating over the cooler months).

The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' inaugural burn - See Dr Paul Taylor's youtube channel for operational instructions (link above)
The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' inaugural burn - See Dr Paul Taylor's youtube channel for operational instructions (link above)
The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' inaugural burn with logo
The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' inaugural burn with logo
Snuffing the burn - I added some water to the fire (which warped two of the panels - I wouldn't recommend this) ),  then added a 25kg bag of granular bentonite clay for the first snuff layer
Snuffing the burn - I added some water to the fire (which warped two of the panels - I wouldn't recommend this) ), then added a 25kg bag of granular bentonite clay for the first snuff layer
The second snuff layer - I added soil on top of the clay until even, which is about 10cm deep. I doused the soil evenly with water (optional) to reduce the possibility of spontaneous recombustion from below
The second snuff layer - I added soil on top of the clay until even, which is about 10cm deep. I doused the soil evenly with water (optional) to reduce the possibility of spontaneous recombustion from below

Final/third snuff layer - I added another 20cm of soil on top, spread out evenly. I also added soil around the base, mainly at the panel edges to prevent spontaneous recombustion since there were minor air leaks (an issue with flatpacked designs). The soil at the base will also insulate the biochar during the baking process which should last at least one day.

Two days after the burn - removal of biochar mix - just lift up a panel and transport snuff layer to a Permafert midden (see below). Remainder biochar mix to an inoculation bath or a Permafert midden as well.
Two days after the burn - removal of biochar mix - just lift up a panel and transport snuff layer to a Permafert midden (see below). Remainder biochar mix to an inoculation bath or a Permafert midden as well.

The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V2

Modifications made to V1: 2mm hot rolled mild steel has been upgraded to 3mm HW350 'weathering' 'corten' steel - which doubled the cost but is not pickled, can be left assembled outside in the weather for a semi-permanent installation (gains a rusty patina but will not rot to the core) and has a higher tensile strength (450-550 ts) .  So, the kiln should last much longer without any warping issues compared to V1. The key/slot system has been simplified from 3 keys/slots to 2 keys/slots per panel side - seems to assemble much more easily compared to V1. The keys are now more robust - longer and wider. Slot size is more generous in width, though perhaps a little too generous with wiggle room to allow easy key insertion and handle the increased width of 3mm steel. The panels have been reversed in assembly with the double folds now on the outside - this enables an anchor point for using star pickets to stabilise the panels during assembly. Assembly requires that the kiln is surrounded by soft ground in order to anchor the star pickets (using a sledge hammer) but the surface beneath the kiln needs to be level so that all panels lock in correctly. This can be achieved using a base plate (see below). The base will also increase the temperature of the fire by reflecting heat back into it and also create better insulation for the baking process eg. 24 hours, following a burn.

Prototyping begins on May 16, 2018.

Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V2 with base plate and new rusty patina - aint she a beauty?!
Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V2 with base plate and new rusty patina - aint she a beauty?!
Base plate design for Flat-Tiki 'Carbon'
I paid AUD$185 (inc. GST) for the 2 base plates with folding off a standard sheet of 1.95mm hot rolled steel
Base plate for Flat-Tiki 'Carbon'.jpg
JPG Image 78.3 KB

The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V3

Wider keys, narrower key gaps and smaller slots. Wide slots for removable (last) panel. I will use 3mm hot rolled steel for rental kilns since they are AUD$160 cheaper than kilns made from weathering steel and will only be erected for 24 hours so they won't be left outside to rust for any extended period.  I paid AUD$505 (inc. GST) for V3 off 3mm hot rolled steel. The 'Carbon' V3 should be perfect for converting agroforestry and vineyard waste to biochar!

Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V3
flat tiki 3c 3mm .dxf
Text Document 121.9 KB

The dxf can be viewed in 'DWG Trueview' in Windows, 'DWG Fastview' in iOS and 'DWG Fastview' in Android. Ready to be printed on a CNC Plasma cutter or even better, a CNC Laser Cutter, preferably a 500W fiber optic laser cutter (see below) that cuts up to 6mm Carbon steel and 3mm stainless steel - also handy for cutting TLUD components eg. 'Permastove' V2 (see in TLUD section)! I would predict from my preliminary research that laser cutters can be found in many major cities in most industrialised nations. A global survival technology combination in a nut shell.  If the fiber laser cutter doesn't exist then consider buying it with aid and development funds from industrialised nations (that created most of the world's Carbon pollution in order to climb up the energy ladder)...Please note that if you want to 'significantly' modify the design, skip prototyping V3 and produce 'Carbon' V3 knock-offs, please acknowledge Permachar original authorship of the 'Carbon'; 'Kon-Tiki' and 'Moki' origins and the Creative Commons 'Attribution 4.0 International License' and please remove my logo - no voluntary AUD$50 payment per kiln produced will then be required. However, from an R & D perspective, modification of the 'Carbon' V3 at this early stage is not really recommended until it has been prototyped by a number of users for at least 6 months. The 'Carbon' V4 can then build on user feedback and become a better and more open source kiln (like the 'Eve V' tablet computer) than what it is now with no voluntary payments required for beta testing (unheard of in the software community - sorry about that) and producers can put on their own logo - muddy waters but allows producers to take a degree of ownership of the kilns they sell. Subsequent versions of the 'Carbon' will be left to the user community to develop (while acknowledging Permachar original authorship of the 'Carbon'; 'Kon-Tiki' and 'Moki' origins and the Creative Commons 'Attribution 4.0 International License')...A focus then can also be made by the user community on setting up 'Carbon Credits' or 'CO2 certificates' (various schemes to think about eg.https://www.biochar-journal.org/en/ct/88) for the users who produce biochar (based on the amount of biochar they produce) with the 'Carbon' kilns (or other relatively clean biochar kilns or cleaner biochar kilns such as the Kon-Tiki cone - think 'Clean emissions' V 'Logistics' V 'Jobs' V' 'Growth' V 'Prosperity' V 'Happiness' V ... - what will be the optimal combination to drawdown Carbon?) therefore both kiln producers and kiln users would be financially rewarded and the planet might not overheat ;)

Tech specs for a 500W fiber optic laser cutter from Style CNC (Carbon Credit machine)

ST-FC2513E with 500W Raycus laser source price is USD$32,880 (as of 5/2018)FOB Qingdao, China
1. Cutting area:1300*2500mm
2. Raycus laser source 500W
3. WSX laser cutting head
4. Taiwan Delta servo motor 
5. Taiwan APEX gear rack
6. Taiwan Hiwin 30mm square rail with flange (original)
7. Japan Shimpo reducer
8. Taiwan AirTAC pneumatic components
9. France SCHNEIDER electric components
10. Cypcut control system with software
11. Automatic lubricating system 
12. Double control water chiller
13.Machine weight 2500KG
Note 1: that this is adequate for making the Carbon V3 and TLUDs - not suitable if you need to cut off larger sheets such as 1500mmx3000mm. It's much cheaper than the larger laser cutters with 1500mmx3000mm cutting area, the more expensive lasers eg.IPG and the higher powered lasers eg. 1000W and upwards
Note 2: technical training and installation can be provided by Style CNC. Flights and accommodation for the engineer needs to be provided. A 3 year warranty is provided and spare parts for all the machine at factory price,such as lens and nozzles, can be supplied.
Note 3: This machine can operate at 10-40degs Celsius
Note 4: down the track I'll do a blog on the impact of laser cutters on emerging economies

Suggestion for approach to securing funding for biochar projects

The bottom line of what most funds are looking at:
1. What you want to do?
2. Why do you want to do it?
3. How will you do it?
4. How much will it cost in total? Break down what money you will spend on each activity? The timeframe of when those activities will happen and end?
5. What people will benefit from the project? How many people?
6. Who will be your implementing partners?
7. What are the potential risks that can occur throughout the project life time?
8. What are the levels of risks, high, medium or low?
9. How will those risks be minimised or avoided?
10. What are the contributions in cash or in-kind? How much?

There are additional considerations too such as ecological benefits and benefits to women and children.

Updated Preparation, Assembly, Operation and Emptying notes for the Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V3

Preparation

*Fire safety

-use a solid metal fire rake to remove ground debris at least 5 metres around the kiln and make sure no overhanging branches are above the kiln with a clearance of less than 5 metres. If you've got a wheelbarrow, place the raked debris in the wheelbarrow and shift to a burn pile at least 10 metres from the kiln

-Have a pile of soil in case of emergency fire snuffing

-Get a backpack sprayer filled with water on standby in case of spot fires OR if near a water tank, attach a small pump and get an adequate length of green line 1" rural pipe that will attach to the pump outlet and reach around the circumference of the kiln

-Buy or borrow a pair of welding gloves for operation (the long blue ones) - the kiln flame has been known to 'jump out' of the kiln and reach your hands

-Clothing - don't wear any synthetics - preferably heavy organic cotton

-Work boots - If you're in Oz, Rossi or Blundstone are always handy - just make sure they are steel capped

-Safety glasses - always good when dealing with fire and feedstock

 

*The base/foundation

An imperfect/uneven foundation may lead to an air gap between 2 or more panels. Choose a relatively flat area of ground within a 5 metre vegetation clearance next to and above the kiln spot and create a fairly flat 1.2m x 1.2m square eg. remove rocks, tufts of grass and smooth out the soil with a shovel or rake. Place the base plate on top of the fairly flat square. This will now provide a perfectly flat foundation for the kiln and reflect heat into the fire plus insulate and reduce heat loss during baking

 

*Snuff layers

-Have the snuff layer ingredients within 1 metre from the kiln for easy access - just shovel on top of the fire!

-This is definitely an experimental area. I've been using a combination of bentonite clay (layer 1) and Jeffries Veggie soil (Layer 2). Could even add some biochar on top once you've stockpiled enough

 

*Feedstock management

-Worth doing a blog in itself - may do one later in the year on a rainy day

Essential equipment

1- Chainsaw and related accessories

Good for initial processing of biomass eg. forestry waste, vineyard waste etc.

The Stihl brand is probably the way to go

2- Curved handheld tree saw

Handy when you are collecting forestry waste eg. small dead branches that don't snap off cleanly or for pruning lower branches larger than 10-15mm that can't be easily cut with a chainsaw

The Spear & Jackson brand will do the job nicely

3- Loppers

Handy for pruning lower and higher branches less than 10-15mm.

The Fiskar brand is a little expensive but includes a high quality steel cutter and extendable handles

4- Cordless battery-powered circular saw.

I only use the saw on feedstock that can't be broken with two hands or across my shin. If it's more than a couple of inches thick I tend to stack it separately for cutting with a chainsaw and use it in my pyramid kiln or combustion heater.

The Ozito brand does the job very nicely and they're relatively cheap - worth buying the big battery as it lasts longer in the field and can also be used with other Ozito powered tools. It's a bit dodgy but I tie off the safety with some string so you can have one hand operation and hold the feedstock with the other hand

5-Moisture meter.

Ensure the feedstock is less than 25% moisture content - can use a pronged moisture meter from China eg. MD-4G. The less moisture the feedstock has the faster and more cleanly it will combust

Solar drying

-Create long windrows of feedstock along East-West so they are North or South facing

-Cover the windrows with heavy duty tarps if bad weather approaching and secure with anything heavy you've got eg. Besser blocks, long wooden poles, bricks, rocks, logs etc.

Shed drying

-When the feedstock is dry, if you've got a large shed then move it by wheelbarrow into the shed - This will remove a final percentage of moisture in addition to the solar drying. Only bother to shed dry if the shed is within reasonably close distance to the site of the kiln so there is efficient transportation of the feedstock to the kiln

 

Kiln assembly

-Careful moving panels - don't drop them as the keys might distort on impact (however the V3 keys should be strong enough to take a fall)

-Assemble on top of the base plate

-Assemble with panel folds on outside, use to secure 7 x 1.8m star droppers for balance during assembly and use

- 2 person assembly is much easier than 1 person (can be done but not as fun)!

Here goes:
3,2,1
3
Assemble first 3 panels. Keyed panel in middle first (logo panel), lean against a fold on base plate to steady and support with 2 star droppers. Drop in second and third slotted panels on either side and add star dropper support to each panel centre top
2
Attach one keyed panel with star dropper support at centre top on one side and one keyed panel without a star dropper on the other side. May need to reattach star droppers on second and third panels
1
Drop in final (slotted) panel with 14mm slots - first side drop onto keyed panel without star dropper - probably will need to move both of the panels around a little for insertion. On the second and last side of the slotted panel, drop onto keyed panel with star dropper. Once the final panel is in place, add a star dropper at centre top to secure it. This slotted panel (opposite the logo panel) will b lifted and removed when emptying the kiln, hence the 14mm slots for easier access.

Operation

-When filling kiln before ignition, don't need to process feedstock - put it straight into the kiln

-Follow the Kon-Tiki operating instructions on Dr Paul Taylor's youtube channel (link above)

-Burn until biochar is up to the top of the top key/slot. This will provide enough space for the snuff layers. The fire doesn't get too hot as well as it would if it was filled to the top.

-Baking? Experimental. The closer you get to Terra Preta de Indio (or rather, Terra Preta Australis) the better it is for growing plants. I've got to do some testing but I'm thinking at the moment that 24 hours should be long enough. The baking breaks the biochar into smaller pieces which increases the overall surface area which is good for almost every application. I'm also going to try baking without soil on the outside since the 3mm steel should provide adequate insulation for 24 hours - needs to be tested (maybe at 6 hour intervals with a laser 'infrared thermometer', also available from China for a low cost eg. The 'dodocool' GM900 works well and cost about AUD$30

-Snuffing will not use water i.e. these kilns will now be 'water-free' (with the exception of a backpack sprayer for spot fires/dousing the biochar after emptying). This saves on water, allows more remote field deployment and protects the 3mm hot rolled steel from corrosion and rusting.

Emptying
-Ensure original 3 panels assembled are still supported by star droppers
-Remove star droppers on keyed panels adjacent to the last panel (14mm slotted) assembled

-Remove star dropper on last panel
-To empty kiln,  lift up last panel and remove. Shovel biochar mixture through kiln opening into a wheelbarrow and transport to inoculation bath, Permafert midden, trailer, ute or bag it up for car transport.

-Can use a backpack sprayer filled with water (and inoculants - bonus) (or 1" rural pipe 'gravity fed' from a nearby water tank - or even water from a 'Furphy') to water down the biochar before transport  or bagging in order to cool it down and prevent 'spontaneous recombustion' (biochar goes up in flames again).

-If using the 'Carbon' in a semi-permanent setup, you could scrape off the top half of the snuff layers and shovel into a pile 1m from the kiln for the next burn. This will economise the use of snuff ingredients and reduce transportation demands

What's the marketing strategy?

The neverending question. I've thought about this many times and I think it depends on where you are and what resources eg. laser cutter, steel, feedstock, land, people etc and market you can access. As a basic approach though, I would say start yourself with one 'Carbon' kiln, stockpile many litres of biochar or Permafert, sell it to the locals and build interest and your market, take the profit and build a few more kilns with accessories (see below) and start a 24 hour kiln rental service, do some cheap biochar-making demonstrations for the public with a rental kiln, rent for a season then hopefully people will want to buy them for their properties if they can justify it's benefits eg. establishing agroforestry systems, new vineyard polycultures etc. If you're feeling really energetic, use profit from all of that and if you can access cheap 'clean'/'toxic chemical-free' IBCs, start a wicking bed business as well! Value add where you can and you might even make the planet greener and fairer than the planet that you inherited...

Rental notes

I think a good rental service will provide the following equipment to the customer:

-Kiln and base plate

-Star droppers

-Sledgehammer

-Welding gloves

-Backpack sprayer

The customer could provide:

-Ingredients for snuff layers

-Water for backpack sprayer and inoculants

-Shovel

-Wheelbarrow/bags

-Firelighter/newspaper

Please share some money

All this Research and Development (R&D) takes time, perseverance, passion and money. I want to provide good user support too...If you sell kilns or rent kilns (which is what I am going to do), please let me know so I can put the kilns on a map.  I'll also establish an online forum for a 'Carbon' user community once there are enough prototypers/beta testers to justify it.  Please share some money for further 'Carbon' kiln R&D via a paypal account (free and easy to set up if you don't have one) at the following web address (URL): paypal.me/permachar
or just click the link below... A recommended amount is AUD$50 for every 'Carbon' V3 kiln manufactured. Thanks!!

 

Back to processing the biochar...

Inoculation baths - built from IBCs that have had their top cut off (subsequently used for wicking beds) and outlet (on the inside of the IBC) siliconed with fibreglass flywire mesh for coarse filtration. Remove as much of the snuff layer as possible and transfer to a Permafert midden (see below). The remainder biochar mix can be shovelled into a wheelbarrow and transferred into one of these baths. Water added (eg. from a rainwater tank off the roof of a drying shed) to a level near the top then add whatever you want depending on what plants you want to grow in what conditions (in winery terminology, it's called the 'terroir') eg. Neutrog GoGo juice (probiotic bacteria), Nutritech Platform (fungus -apprently 95% dormant, waiting for 'Response' produced in Oz by a Kiwi), Seasol/Microtech Organics liquid kelp (or any liquid kelp), Nutritech NPK 'Hotmix' (a high temperature produced liquid compound made of NPK - better than your standard NPK), worm castings (from a worm farm - preferably yours), worm wee (from a worm farm - preferably yours), rock dust (more minerals), molasses (bacteria food), Nitrogen/urea, indigenous micro-organisms (IMO) from a soil sample from the site that you want to put the Permafert to grow plants, etc. Soak brew for a couple of days, stirring a couple of times each day, then siphon off the liquid into a bucket and bucket/transfer into the second empty inoculation bath ready for the next batch of biochar mix (thereby using less additional ingredients for the next batch). In other words, you will alternate between the two baths for each consecutive batch and will top up with water and additional ingredients. Double the number of inoculation baths if the volume from the burn is above approximately 600L (which is the case for the 'Carbon'), so two baths will become four baths. After siphoning off the liquid, tip over the bath to empty contents then shovel inoculated mix into a wheelbarrow and transport to a Permafert midden. The advantage of using an inoculation bath V adding the biochar mix from the kiln straight onto the Permafert midden and using a weed sprayer backpack for liquid ingredients is a higher rate and deeper penetration of ingredient inoculation (in particular microbes) into the 3D biochar matrix.

Permafert midden - similar to that used by the original Amazonian Indians to make Terra Preta de Indio. Add Jeffries veggie soil, granular bentonite clay, biochar - from the kiln PLUS whatever was in the inoculation bath OR if not using an inoculation bath, whatever can be poured into a large weed sprayer backpack (say 15 litres) and sprayed onto the midden eg. Neutrog GoGo juice (probiotic bacteria), molasses (bacteria food), Seasol (or liquid kelp - for minerals), worm wee (from a worm farm - preferably yours), nitrogen/urea (from the 'ol piss bucket), Nutritech NPK 'Hotmix' (a high temperature produced liquid compound made of NPK - better than your standard NPK but expensive), Nutritech Platform (fungus -apparently 95% dormant, waiting for 'Response' produced in Oz by a Kiwi), rock dust (from the local quarry - minerals), indigenous micro-organisms (IMO) from a soil sample from the site that you want to put the Permafert to grow plants AND add (without the weed sprayer backpack and in addition to what was in the inoculation bath): manure (eg. cow, chicken, pig, horse, goat, etc.), black soldier flies (BSF) that eat the manure and produce larvae, red earthworms that feed on the BSF larvae residue (from your local supplier), grape marc (from a local winery - full of minerals, nutrients, bacteria and fungus), etc. Once again, what you add to your Permafert midden depends on which plants you want to grow (and what they need to grow) and the 'terroir'. I also add organic kitchen scraps to the midden and dig them in to add organic matter. You could also use a separate worm farm for the scraps which has the benefit of worm castings and worm wee as byproducts which can then be added to the midden (see above). When I add the contents of the ol' piss bucket, I make a depression at the top of the midden and pour in the contents so that it distributes through the centre of the pile. Now is a good time to water down the pile if the moisture content is too low in order to dilute the urea and keep the midden moist and turn every day or two - this will distribute the midden contents more evenly and ensure moisture gets to the bacteria, fungus, manure, earthworms and the general 'soil food web' that you are trying to kickstart. If the midden gets too large to enable easy turning, I make another one. If that gets too big, I make a third one and so on...

Recommended reading:

*Taylor, Dr. Paul (ed.), 'The biochar revolution: Transforming agriculture and environment', 2010, Global Publishing Group, Australia

*Woods, William I. (ed.) et al, 'Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision', 2009, Springer, USA

* Lowenfels, Jeff and Lewis, Wayne, 'Teaming with microbes: A gardener's guide to the soil food web', 2006, Timber Press, USA

*Lowenfels, Jeff, 'Teaming with nutrients: The organic gardener's guide to optimizing plant nutrition', 2016, Timber Press, USA

*Author unknown, 'Great garden formulas: The ultimate book of mix-it-yourself concoctions for your garden', 2006, publisher and place unknown

*Reddy, Rohini, 'Cho's global natural farming', 2011, SARRA, South Korea

Many more to mention plus google searches for 'soil' and 'compost' will reveal lots of links...

Both graphene (made of Carbon atoms) and beehive cells/honeycomb use hexagonal geometry - the least material needed per shape perimeter/walls, high stability and presumably optimal volume too. These design principles were integrated into the 'Carbon'.
Both graphene (made of Carbon atoms) and beehive cells/honeycomb use hexagonal geometry - the least material needed per shape perimeter/walls, high stability and presumably optimal volume too. These design principles were integrated into the 'Carbon'.
Oregon Hybrid Kiln V2
A flatpackable/transportable adaptation of Kelpie Wilson's original 'Oregon' forestry waste kiln. Designed for 2mm hot rolled steel. Next version will be designed for 3mm hot rolled steel.
Oregon Hybrid Kiln V2.zip
Compressed Archive in ZIP Format 57.8 KB
The Oregon Hybrid Kiln (OHK) inaugural burn with the original Flat-Tiki foldable heat shield
The Oregon Hybrid Kiln (OHK) inaugural burn with the original Flat-Tiki foldable heat shield
The Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK)
Modular, lightweight, flat-packable (transportable), extendable (expandable volume). Good for most sizes of feedstock eg. bamboo, rice straw. Can be used as a 'swale machine' using the FMBK in hybrid mode by digging a pit underneath the kiln. Every burn can be used to extend the length of the swale. To obtain soil-free biochar, use a soaked HD canvas drop sheet (experimental)/soaked carpet (ensuring no gaps on top of kiln) to snuff the burn. To obtain a biochar blend, use soil from the pit, compost and additional clay if available to snuff the burn. Leave some of mix in swale for planting and remainder for top soil layer in wicking beds or wicking pots. Soil-free biochar for wicking aquifers & aquaponics. If mix is too alkaline, to quote Dr PT "sprinkle on some Iron sulphate as you go. You can spray on some phosphoric acid to the milled or un-milled biochar; do a titration on a small volume first to see how much you need". Designed with 1.5mm Corten steel.
Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK).pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.4 MB
The Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK) assembled for first time
The Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK) assembled for first time
The FMBK inaugural burn
The FMBK inaugural burn
The FMBK in Oregon hybrid mode (with dodgy logo)
The FMBK in Oregon hybrid mode (with dodgy logo)
The Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT) kiln
Modular, lightweight, flat-packable (transportable). Good for shorter/smaller feedstock. I would recommend 2.5mm hot rolled steel since corten is not available in this sheet size
Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT).pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.7 MB
The Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT) Heat Shield
Lightweight, transportable, increases the efficiency of the biochar burn. Designed for 0.6mm hot rolled steel.
Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT) Heat Shield.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.1 MB
Kon-Tiki 'Mini'
A biochar kiln for the home gardener. Can also be used as a 3 in 1 - biochar kiln, BBQ and fire pit. Recommended to build with 2.5mm hot rolled steel. Just add optional tilting frame and drain. Suitable for use in between the fire seasons. Inspired by Dr Paul Taylor, Hans-Peter Schmidt and original 'Moki' kiln
Kon-Tiki 'Mini'.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 312.2 KB
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m - original cone design by Dr Paul Taylor. Built with 3mm mild steel - next version will use 2.5mm hot rolled steel..
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m - original cone design by Dr Paul Taylor. Built with 3mm mild steel - next version will use 2.5mm hot rolled steel..
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m at night
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m at night
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m with torroidal convection loop - needed for super-clean emissions
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m with torroidal convection loop - needed for super-clean emissions
The 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' - Build in conjuntion with the 'Original design for pyramid kiln translated to metric measurements' below
A 3 in 1 biochar kiln, BBQ and fire pit. Suitable for use in between the fire seasons
Pyramid BBQ 'Classic' - bent legs - fina
JPG Image 3.7 MB
The 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' - a cheeky BBQ before getting into making a batch of biochar. Built with 1.5mm Corten steel - next version will have top folds.
The 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' - a cheeky BBQ before getting into making a batch of biochar. Built with 1.5mm Corten steel - next version will have top folds.
Original design for pyramid kiln translated to metric measurements
Original design by Kelpie Wilson
The 'Pyramid' biochar kiln.jpg
JPG Image 3.4 MB
The original Pyramid kiln - first light. Built with 3mm mild steel.
The original Pyramid kiln - first light. Built with 3mm mild steel.
Literary review of pyrolysis reactors
Published by Washington State Department of Ecology 2011
!!lit review of pyrolysis reactors.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 6.8 MB
Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/ Biochar Production
A comparison of flame cap/curtain/TFOD kilns
Kiln showdown - HPS, PT et al.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 612.7 KB
A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power
As the title suggests - possible application for waste heat recovery on flame curtain/cap/TFOD kilns
A thermally regenerative ammonia-based b
Adobe Acrobat Document 987.2 KB

Top-Lit UpDraft (TLUD) stoves that produce biochar as a 'waste' product

The 'Permastove' V2 - second draft
Based on my orginal 'Permastove' TLUD built from a reclaimed stainless steel birko from the late Geoff Moxham in 2009. Now that I've 'gone laser' I thought a laser-cut update would be a good idea. Should work great on rice husk pellets as I tested the 'Permastove' V1 with wood pellets which worked well - however the Permastove V2 has a larger volume than V1 in it's inner cylinder so it could be interesting to prototype with pure rice husk (lower energy density and greater volume compared with rice husk pellets). Just need to build it with some local help and prototype it. Two off each standard sheet of 304 1.5mm stainless steel. Quoted AUD$300 for laser cutting - probably hold off until I redesign it with 4 stoves off one sheet...
Permastove V2 - second draft.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.1 MB
The 'Permastove' V2 first drafts of the 'Pot stand' and 'Handles'
Permastove V2 - pot stand and handles.pd
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.5 MB
Latest CAD design of the 'Permastove' V2 - now with spare grate
Here she is. Eight years in the making. Can't guarantee it will all fit together perfectly. Any beta testers out there? If you're interested, please contact me. Please share AUD$10 per stove you manufacture. As with the 'Carbon' V3, if I can get enough beta testers, the 'Permastove' V4 will be more open source and built like the 'Eve V' tablet computer. Please acknowledge the Creative Commons 'Attribution 4.0 International License' and Permachar original authorship; and TLUD origins (see below for some inspiration and ideas). Any modifications the same rules apply. Thanks and enjoy!
Permastove V2b.dxf
Text Document 860.2 KB

Features:

-The square shape of the pot stand should be large enough and sturdy enough to support flat-bottomed pots and pans and round-bottomed woks. The 20mm diameter circles (formerly 30mm) are for flame jets which should be large enough to suck the fire out of the inner cylinder and provide adequate flame/heating for cooking while providing a sturdy base.

-The handles are double so 1.5mm goes to 3mm which is hopefully thick and robust enough. The double welded tabs should provide strong attachment of the handle to the outer cylinder - maybe orientate North-South so they don't act as hinges when the stove is tipped over!

Updates:

-You could fill the insulation gap with biochar produced from the first few burns of the stove. The lid tabs could be screwed into the outer cylinder with 3.2mm x 20mm galv screws which would stabilise the cylinders, increase pressure in the secondary air gap by reducing air leakage at the top and prevent the insulation from falling out when the stove is tipped over

-A spare grate on the sheet. The inner cylinder will eventually wear out from exposure to fire and need replacement at some stage but probably not before the grate will burn out in the middle. For convenience the entire grate should be able to be snipped out with good tin snips and replaced with a spare one that can be screwed in with 3.2mm x 20mm galv screws (can be purchased from Bunnings)

-The power bank could be the Zendure X6, found on Indiegogo

-The X6 could be powered from a 20W solar PV panel with USB C output

Logistics

The 'Permastove' V2 is more complicated, but hopefully not too complicated, to build compared with the 'Carbon' V3. There are more parts and more things need to be done to the metal. I've been told that the double fold on the 'Carbon' V3 is tricky but doable for a skilled press brake operator. The 'Permastove' V2 however requires rolling, bending and welding in addition to laser cutting (which is a skill in itself). I'm thinking that regional 500W fiber optic laser cutters could be purchased in a given region for both the kilns and stoves and the 'Permastove' V2+ could be distributed as a flatpacked kit to local workshops that can do rolling, bending and welding. These workshops could then act as stove distrubution hubs. I prefer this model over a centralised workshop that does everything but only creates distant jobs through the biochar related supply chains. In theory, anyway...

A biomass-biochar stove
Individual project while undertaking a Diploma of Permaculture at the former Permaforest Trust in Byron Bay, 2009-2010. Published by James Jenkinson 2010
PFT individual project - A biomass-bioch
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 6.0 MB
The original 'Permastove' V1, designed and built while undertaking a Diploma of Permaculture
The original 'Permastove' V1, designed and built while undertaking a Diploma of Permaculture
Dr Alexis Belonio's Rice husk gasifier TLUD handbook
Belonio_gasifier - rice husk.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.6 MB
Construction plans for 2008 "Champion" stove by Dr TLUD
Construction Plans 2009-03-11.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.3 MB
Dr Hugh McLaughlin's 1G 'Toucan' TLUD - DIY
1G_Toucan_TLUD_for_Biochar.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 629.8 KB

Biochar-making tech overview

I've summarised the above kilns and stoves according to biomass feedstock size. Note that my preference for biochar apptech is completely biased since I designed most of what I'm about to recommend (with a lot of help from my friends):

*Small feedstock eg. Pellets/sticks/coconut shell/corn cob/rice husk etc. - Try the 'Permastove' V2 (beta) for cooking and biochar making

*Small to medium feedstock eg. large sticks, bamboo, small cut logs etc. - Try the 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' (3 in 1 BBQ, firepit, biochar making)

*Medium to large feedstock eg. Bamboo, brush, small branches etc. - Try the Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V3 (beta) - biomass 'waste' removal, biochar making, heat on a cold day

*Large feedstock eg. cut and split logs etc. - slow combustion stove/wood-fired Aga (I don't think I can improve/redesign these - quite refined tech) - produces small amounts of biochar but mostly ash (a good source of minerals and alkaline pH adjustment for acidic soils). Also good for space heating, heating water eg. wetbacking cogen for a solar hot water system, water pastuerisation, making a hot drink; slow cooking

Microbial fuel cells

Microbial fuel cell as new technology for bioelectricity generation: A review
Broad overview of MFC technology - probably best to read first before getting into the nitty gritty of it all
Microbial fuel cell as new technology fo
Adobe Acrobat Document 704.0 KB
Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells
Love those nanowires
Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power micr
Adobe Acrobat Document 535.2 KB
Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer with Biochar.pdf
Mentions Geobacter sulfurreducens
Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.1 MB
Yu, L. et al. Biochar as an electron shuttle for reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by Geobacter sulfurreducens. Sci. Rep. 5, 16221; doi: 10.1038/srep16221 (2015)
Modelling of biochar with Geobacter sulfurreducens to dechlorinate PCP. Complicated but some interesting results - also worth considering when combining biochar electrodes with Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell (possibly using contaminated soil with biochar/biochar-compost)
Biochar_as_an_electron_shuttle_for_reduc
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.3 MB
'The impacts of biochar and compost on microbial extracellular electron transfer processes as shown by studies on soil microbial fuel cells' Aurelio Briones and Allison Torres, University of Idaho
Promising results for a 'compost and biochar' soil microbial fuel cell (SMFC). It would be interesting to build one with biochar electrodes and couple to a supercapacitor also with biochar electrodes for a hybrid energy production and storage system - an almost sustainable power source!
MFC EET compost+biochar.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.3 MB
Biochar Based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) for Enhanced Wastewater Treatment and Nutrient Recovery
An awesome research project about using MFCs using biochar electrodes to purify wastewater while at the same time generating power, reclaiming nutrients and sequestrating carbon (as the spent biochar electrodes can be used as a soil amendment)
!!Biochar Based Microbial Fuel Cell for
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.3 MB
Microbial Fuel Cell and Reverse Electrodialysis Technologies for Renewable Power Generation From Biomass and Salinity Gradients
A must read for renewable energy enthusiasts!
Microbial Fuel Cell and Reverse Electrod
Adobe Acrobat Document 15.0 MB
High-Selectivity Electrochemical Conversion of CO2 to Ethanol using a Copper Nanoparticle/N-Doped Graphene Electrode
Biochar is primarily constructed from graphene sheets and bucky balls...looks like biochar can be doped with google search "Can biochar be doped?" Need to pay for the articles ): Unless you have access at a Uni...
High-Selectivity Electrochemical Convers
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.9 MB

Biochar and viticulture

Opportunities for the re-use of winery industry solid wastes
As the title suggests - good overview but nothing specific about biochar
Opportunities for the reuse of winery in
Adobe Acrobat Document 223.8 KB
Utilisation of Winery Waste Biomass in Fluidised bed Gasification and Combustion
Biochar kiln technology could be used instead of the coal industry's preferred 'fluidised bed gasification and combustion' technology
Utilisation of Winery Waste Biomass in F
Adobe Acrobat Document 5.1 MB
Improving vineyard water efficiency by addition of biochar derived from grape stalks and vineyard prunings
Improving vineyard water efficiency by a
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.3 MB
Grape marc biochar mix - effects on soil structure, water efficiency and fertilizer productivity
Grape marc biochar mix.ppt
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 15.5 MB
Biochar use for Finger Lakes vineyards
devinecharprojectv4-140926113057-phpapp0
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 4.4 MB
Delinat guidelines for wineries
Based on experience with Mythopia vineyard in Switzerland
guidelines_delinat_2013.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.0 MB

Biochar wicking beds and pots

A biochar IBC wicking bed - if the cat loves it, it must be good
A biochar IBC wicking bed - if the cat loves it, it must be good
Biochar wicking pots - half biochar in base for water filtration, half Permafert in top for minerals, nutrients, bacteria and fungus, soil biota
Biochar wicking pots - half biochar in base for water filtration, half Permafert in top for minerals, nutrients, bacteria and fungus, soil biota
Mint in a biochar wicking pot in series with two other biochar wicking pots
Mint in a biochar wicking pot in series with two other biochar wicking pots
Perchigation/Biochar cell/Botanical cell
Dr N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy's design for a 'perchigation' system which basically comprises plastic lined cells with a layer of biochar in the bottom half and soil in the top half with biochar compost plantings; the cells are intra-cellularly connected by irrigation pipes. Water flows freely through cells via gravity and is filtrated by the biochar. Good for poor water quality. The 'wicking effect' is employed that allows a flow of water from the biochar saturated/irrigated section and flows upwards through the plant roots.
biocharperchedwaterirrigationperchigatio
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 249.5 KB

Misc biochar photos

Fenugreek (front) and Dill (back) seedlings using biochar in a fancy potting mix with sphagnum moss and peat. Note that biochar has a higher water holding capacity (WHC) than the original potting mix. Adding it increases the overall WHC. I also add a low concentration of Seasol and GoGo Juice to the irrigation water from my 15L weed sprayer backpack in order enhance root growth and potting mix microbial activity.

The ol' biochar piss bucket - no odour, water saving, full of nitrogen/urea for the Permafert
The ol' biochar piss bucket - no odour, water saving, full of nitrogen/urea for the Permafert
Biochar for indoor air filtration - nanoscale surface area - does the job
Biochar for indoor air filtration - nanoscale surface area - does the job
Biochar for water filtration
Biochar for water filtration
An Australian drop of Russian-style vodka that is 'Charcoal filtered' - think 'Biochar filtered' and the good thing is used distillers grain can be used to produce biochar!
An Australian drop of Russian-style vodka that is 'Charcoal filtered' - think 'Biochar filtered' and the good thing is used distillers grain can be used to produce biochar!
Even Arnott's love hexagonal geometry - that's what I call a well-engineered biscuit!!
Even Arnott's love hexagonal geometry - that's what I call a well-engineered biscuit!!

Carbon-based energy storage

Progress of biochar supercapacitors
Published in 2013 - much progress since then but good snapshot and some great pictures
Progress of Biochar Supercapacitors.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.2 MB
Use microwave tech on biomass eg. agricultural waste for Graphene-like substance
For the Al-Graphene, no child labor for mining cobalt in the DRC required or ecological catastrophe for Lithium reserves in Salar de Uyuni. Alternatively, replace Al with biochar for electrodes.

Can use microwave tech from Kiwis on biomass eg. agricultural waste, and produce a Graphene-like substance to replace expensive and less sustainable Graphene.

ZapGo white paper 2017 - Carbon-Ion (C-Ion) energy storage for a range of electronic applications
ZapGo-White-paper-2017.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 553.8 KB

Carbon-based computing

Quantum information processing in carbon
A snapshot of the future of carbon-based computing
Quantum information processing in carbon
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.0 MB
Towards a fullerene-based quantum computer
Carbon-based nano-quantum computer
Towards a fullerene-based quantum comput
Adobe Acrobat Document 764.9 KB

Bamboo biochar

World bamboo resources: A thematic study prepared in the framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005
Fascinating overview of world bamboo resources. I'm looking forward to an up-to-date version from GABAR
World bamboo resources A thematic study
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.1 MB
Phytolith-occluded organic C in intensively managed Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) stands and implications for carbon sequestration
Research on phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC)/'plantstone'/'plant opal'/'opal phytolith'/'biogenic opal'/'silica cells'/'grass opal' in bamboo focusing on intensively managed Lei bamboo. Could biochar produced with high yielding PhytOC biomass be the key to long-term carbon bio-sequestration?
Phytolith-occluded organic C in intensiv
Adobe Acrobat Document 892.8 KB
Carbon bio-sequestration within the phytoliths of economic bamboo species
This paper examines bamboo leaf litter of 10 economic bamboo species and it's ability to form PhytOC for long-term carbon bio-sequestration. Bamboo biochar IBC MFC anyone?
!Carbon bio-sequestration within the phy
Adobe Acrobat Document 356.5 KB
Soil carbon sequestration in phytoliths
More info on phytoliths by J.F. Parr and L.A. Sullivan . To quote an intersting excerpt "...the resistance of PhytOC against decomposition processes resulted in PhytOC comprising up to 82% (with a mean of 42%) of the total carbon pool in the buried topsoils after 1000 years of decomposition.
Soil carbon sequestration in phytoliths,
Adobe Acrobat Document 243.4 KB
Slow Pyrolysis of Bamboo Biomass: Analysis of Biochar Properties
Provides a methodology for assessing bamboo biochar
Slow Pyrolysis of Bamboo Biomass: Analys
Adobe Acrobat Document 855.3 KB

Biochar in SE Asia

Closed loop for traditional farmers in SE Asia

Harvest bamboo/rice straw/rice husk-->chop up bamboo/dry bamboo/rice straw/rice husk feedstock-->cook taro on TLUD gasifier/cogeneration via biochar kiln->add the biochar to the animal feed (+ use biochar for water filtration)-->feed to water buffaloe/cow/pig-->livestock shits->take the manure/biochar complex and add to biodigester (biochar also reduces smell)-->collect the gas for cooking/electricity-->take the biodigester effluent/byproduct and add to soil-->grow the taro/rice/bamboo-->harvest (back to the start)

How biochar could be integrated into a SE Asian economy
Biochar Mind Map V2.jpg
JPG Image 887.0 KB
By Dr Paul A. Olivier - many different ideas happening for integrated biochar, animal and permaculture systems
Raising Pigs, chickens and Cows - Paul O
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.8 MB
As the title suggests, also by Dr Paul A. Olivier. More biochar applications...
Making waste our greatest resource.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.1 MB

Biochar co-operatives?

ICA - Blueprint for a co-operative decade
Published by the International Co-operative Alliance
ICA Blueprint - Final - Feb 13 EN.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.3 MB
World Food Day 2012 - Agricultural Co-operatives: Key to feeding the world - FAO
Published by Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations 2012
World_Food_Day_2012_Leaflet.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 841.7 KB
How to start a co-op
Published by the International Co-operative Alliance
How to establish a co-op_0.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 60.7 KB

Misc biochar information

Biocharculture
A fantastic overview of biochar culture, mostly in India by Dr Sai Bhaskar N. Reddy
Biocharculture-Book_20_8_2014_finalSF.pd
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.4 MB
An (almost) bio-based household economy
Using biochar for various functions at the household economy level
Bio-based household economy.jpg
JPG Image 2.4 MB
Biochar blends
Published by Dr N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy
!bcblends.jpg
JPG Image 131.2 KB
CO 2 -fixing one-carbon metabolism in a cellulose- degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum
Awesome potential for CO2 sequestration by inoculating biochar with Clostridium thermocellum (may need some GE...gulp)
CO 2 -fixing one-carbon metabolism in a
Adobe Acrobat Document 1'012.1 KB
An Environmentally Friendly Engineered Azotobacter Strain That Replaces a Substantial Amount of Urea Fertilizer while Sustaining the Same Wheat Yield
Bacterial Nitrogen fixation with an Azotobacter strain - once again, could be used to inoculate biochar
An environment friendly engineered Azoto
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.2 MB

Misc photos

Olive branch - late harvest. I will experiment with olive trees as a pioneer species (micro-climate and Nitrogen-fixation) for a Mediterranean food forest - with a 50cm diameter hexagon x 50cm deep hole in ground using designer Permafert. Just add goats.
Olive branch - late harvest. I will experiment with olive trees as a pioneer species (micro-climate and Nitrogen-fixation) for a Mediterranean food forest - with a 50cm diameter hexagon x 50cm deep hole in ground using designer Permafert. Just add goats.
Olives drying out before bottling (see Milkwood Permaculture for instructions). Olives make me happy!!
Olives drying out before bottling (see Milkwood Permaculture for instructions). Olives make me happy!!
Hemp seed (left) and beans (right) in Nepal. Integrated as a traditional polyculture system.
Hemp seed (left) and beans (right) in Nepal. Integrated as a traditional polyculture system.
Hemp seed - the ultimate easily cropped superfood. Now legal to grow and consume in South Australia (min. one hectare which counts me out) and Australia!! 'Bout bloody time!!
Hemp seed - the ultimate easily cropped superfood. Now legal to grow and consume in South Australia (min. one hectare which counts me out) and Australia!! 'Bout bloody time!!

Could hemp grow in the desert?

The idea I am proposing involves growing acacias, coppicing them, making biochar, creating a biochar fertiliser called Permafert (inc. Response), digging swales slightly off contour (to avoid 'wet feet'), adding the Permafert to the bottom of the swales, placing microdrippers along the top using the 'Measured Irrigation' system,  growing hemp (using an appropriate cultivar) then using the hemp for more biochar, housing (using hempcrete and replacing the lime with biochar: 'hempcharcrete'), food (hemp seed, hemp protein, hemp oil),  biodiesel (as a last resort) and many other uses. I would also like to trial biochar filtration for groundwater from a bore and investigate water quality as a result of the filtration - used for 'Measured Irrigation' of the hemp plants. Irrigate when the swales have a below optimal moisture content determined by swale cores and evaporation levels. Start with a 1 hectare trial. Anyone interested?

'Gyanbisuna' organic farm and research station, Annapurna region, Nepal
A demonstration of integrated permaculture and biochar design. Still waiting on funds for the project - please help!
gyanbisuna-1ST draft.jpg
JPG Image 1.5 MB
'Gyanbisuna' 3D model - can be viewed in Google 'Sketchup'
Just for fun
Gyanbisuna - 3D - terraces - with models
exe File 10.8 MB

Please share some money for Permachar R & D

If you found this information useful, please share some money for further Permachar R & D. A recommended amount is AUD$10 - more if you feel really generous. Thanks!! Please use the link below...

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