Biochar links

Visit the International Biochar Initiative Visit the Bioenergy Lists Visit Dr. Paul Taylor's 'The Biochar Revolution' site Biochar for Environmental Management: Science, Technology and Implementation Visit Dr. TLUD - be inspired! The Aprovecho Sustainability Education Center - home of the famous 'stove camp' Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy's GEO portal Read about 'Charmaster Dolph's' biochar exploits Learn about important biochar research in Oz Biochar Industries - biochar for sale in NSW Carbon farming (eg. biochar) for direct action? The secret of El Dorado - a must see The Japan Biochar Association The Ithaka Institute Illinois Biochar Backyard Biochar Finger Lakes Biochar Aqueous Solutions - Biochar for water filtration Kon-Tiki: The democratisation of biochar production Dr Paul Taylor's youtube channel The Kon-Tiki in pictures Dr Hugh McLaughlin's NextChar biochar resources Digital Commons - explore free full-text articles Dr Bruce Logan's portal for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) Hemp for Supercapacitors - carbonisation of hemp bast fibres (into carbon nanosheets) for supercapacitors Hemp for Supercapacitors - the video Biochar activated by oxygen plasma for supercapacitors 'Biochar activated by oxygen plasma for supercapacitors' - additional info in the free online patent application 'The secrets of El Dorado viewed through a microbial perspective' - ties together the importance of electron transfer in the biochar substrate -relates to previous MFC and supercapacitor research The Geobacter Project - maybe used for an inoculant for the biochar-compost fuel cell A quick overview of phytoliths Comparative analysis of the microbial communities in agricultural soil amended with enhanced biochars or traditional fertilisers Effects of Enriched Biochars Containing Magnetic Iron Nanoparticles on Mycorrhizal Colonisation, Plant Growth, Nutrient Uptake and Soil Quality Improvement A Combination of Biochar–Mineral Complexes and Compost Improves Soil Bacterial Processes, Soil Quality, and Plant Properties

Business model links

Other links

Encyclopedia of Life Appropedia - Appropriate Technology projects and more Plants for a Future database - awesome search and extensive links Practical Plants - built on top of Plants for a Future database but rarely updated Permies: a big crowd of permaculture goofballs Permaculture Global - permaculture projects from around the world Milkwood Permaculture The Food Forest StreetBank Ripe near me Resilience - Articles about sustainability The Australia Institute Beyond Zero Emissions Degrowth Wiki about renewable energy - very extensive though still in beta Climate Debate Daily Hemp for Victory - the original video Office of Industrial Hemp and Medicinal Cannabis (SA) Industrial Hemp Association of South Australia A diverse look at food security and sovereignty Lots of interesting links to go with 'The Carbon Farming Solution' by Eric Toensmeier Vineyard Agroecology - lots of links and research papers A great general resource for agroecology UN: Only Small Farmers and Agroecology Can Feed the World Australian Institute of Agroecology ResearchGate - open access to scientific literature Grow your own nutrition - Brix An extensive medicinal and culinary herb reference Another handy medicinal and culinary herb reference A carbon-based photovoltaic (PV) cell Iota - a low-powered/low carbon footprint virtual/cryptocurrency for goods and service exchange in IoT - decentralised distributed ledger in the 'Tangle' - not hackable by a quantum computer ZapGo - a startup on the forefront of C-ion technology for energy storage solutions The future of broadband internet

Resources

Biochar kiln information - a kiln for (almost) every application...

The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' - a hexagonal flat-packable biochar kiln. Panels (13.5kg each) can be transported in the back of a station wagon, trailer or moved around in a field. Perfect for vinyeyard use. Volume is 1438L. Built with 2mm hot rolled and pickled steel (not recommended - the Carbon V2 will use 2.5mm hot rolled steel (without the pickling - no advantage there plus uses an acid bath which is unsustainable). Design available on request.

'Catch and store energy', 'Obtain a yield' and 'Produce no waste'. Forestry waste sun dried over Spring, processed and ready to burn!! Previous feedstock dried in a drying shed. The small stuff gets hand-processed, the medium stuff processed with a battery-powered circular saw (hopefully next-gen will have a graphene or graphene-like substance battery storage) and the large stuff processed with a medium-sized chainsaw (preferably Stihl - love that fossil fuel! Wood used in an indoor combustion heater for space heating over the cooler months).

The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' inaugural burn - See Dr Paul Taylor's youtube channel for operational instructions (link above)
The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' inaugural burn - See Dr Paul Taylor's youtube channel for operational instructions (link above)
The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' inaugural burn with logo
The Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' inaugural burn with logo
Snuffing the burn - I added some water to the fire (which warped two of the panels - I wouldn't recommend this) ),  then added a 25kg bag of granular bentonite clay for the first snuff layer
Snuffing the burn - I added some water to the fire (which warped two of the panels - I wouldn't recommend this) ), then added a 25kg bag of granular bentonite clay for the first snuff layer
The second snuff layer - I added soil on top of the clay until even, which is about 10cm deep. I doused the soil evenly with water (optional) to reduce the possibility of spontaneous recombustion from below
The second snuff layer - I added soil on top of the clay until even, which is about 10cm deep. I doused the soil evenly with water (optional) to reduce the possibility of spontaneous recombustion from below

Final/third snuff layer - I added another 20cm of soil on top, spread out evenly. I also added soil around the base, mainly at the panel edges to prevent spontaneous recombustion since there were minor air leaks (an issue with flatpacked designs). The soil at the base will also insulate the biochar during the baking process which should last at least one day.

Two days after the burn - removal of biochar mix - just lift up a panel and transport snuff layer to a Permafert midden (see below). Remainder biochar mix to an inoculation bath or a Permafert midden as well.
Two days after the burn - removal of biochar mix - just lift up a panel and transport snuff layer to a Permafert midden (see below). Remainder biochar mix to an inoculation bath or a Permafert midden as well.

Inoculation baths - built from IBCs that have had their top cut off (subsequently used for wicking beds) and outlet (on the inside of the IBC) siliconed with fibreglass flywire mesh for coarse filtration. Remove as much of the snuff layer as possible and transfer to a Permafert midden (see below). The remainder biochar mix can be shovelled into a wheelbarrow and transferred into one of these baths. Water added (eg. from a rainwater tank off the roof of a drying shed) to a level near the top then add whatever you want depending on what plants you want to grow in what conditions (in winery terminology, it's called the 'terroir') eg. Neutrog GoGo juice (probiotic bacteria), Nutritech Platform (fungus -apprently 95% dormant, waiting for 'Response' produced in Oz by a Kiwi), Seasol/Microtech Organics liquid kelp (or any liquid kelp), Nutritech NPK 'Hotmix' (a high temperature produced liquid compound made of NPK - better than your standard NPK), worm castings (from a worm farm - preferably yours), worm wee (from a worm farm - preferably yours), rock dust (more minerals), molasses (bacteria food), Nitrogen/urea, indigenous micro-organisms (IMO) from a soil sample from the site that you want to put the Permafert to grow plants, etc. Soak brew for a couple of days, stirring a couple of times each day, then siphon off the liquid into a bucket and bucket/transfer into the second empty inoculation bath ready for the next batch of biochar mix (thereby using less additional ingredients for the next batch). In other words, you will alternate between the two baths for each consecutive batch and will top up with water and additional ingredients. Double the number of inoculation baths if the volume from the burn is above approximately 600L (which is the case for the 'Carbon'), so two baths will become four baths. After siphoning off the liquid, tip over the bath to empty contents then shovel inoculated mix into a wheelbarrow and transport to a Permafert midden. The advantage of using an inoculation bath V adding the biochar mix from the kiln straight onto the Permafert midden and using a weed sprayer backpack for liquid ingredients is a higher rate and deeper penetration of ingredient inoculation (in particular microbes) into the 3D biochar matrix.

Permafert midden - similar to that used by the original Amazonian Indians to make Terra Preta de Indio. Add Jeffries veggie soil, granular bentonite clay, biochar - from the kiln PLUS whatever was in the inoculation bath OR if not using an inoculation bath, whatever can be poured into a large weed sprayer backpack (say 15 litres) and sprayed onto the midden eg. Neutrog GoGo juice (probiotic bacteria), molasses (bacteria food), Seasol (or liquid kelp - for minerals), worm wee (from a worm farm - preferably yours), nitrogen/urea (from the 'ol piss bucket), Nutritech NPK 'Hotmix' (a high temperature produced liquid compound made of NPK - better than your standard NPK), Nutritech Platform (fungus -apprently 95% dormant, waiting for 'Response' produced in Oz by a Kiwi), rock dust (from the local quarry - minerals), indigenous micro-organisms (IMO) from a soil sample from the site that you want to put the Permafert to grow plants AND add (without the weed sprayer backpack and in addition to what was in the inoculation bath): earthworms (from your local supplier), worm castings (from a worm farm - preferably yours), aged manure (eg. cow, chicken, pig, horse, goat, etc.), grape marc (from a local winery - full of minerals, nutrients, bacteria and fungus), etc. Once again, what you add to your Permafert midden depends on which plants you want to grow (and what they need to grow) and the 'terroir'. I also add organic kitchen scraps to the midden and dig them in to add organic matter. You could also use a separate worm farm for the scraps which has the benefit of worm castings and worm wee as byproducts which can then be added to the midden (see above). When I add the contents of the ol' piss bucket, I make a depression at the top of the midden and pour in the contents so that it distributes through the centre of the pile. Now is a good time to water down the pile if the moisture content is too low in order to dilute the urea and keep the midden moist and turn every day or two - this will distribute the midden contents more evenly and ensure moisture gets to the bacteria, fungus, earthworms and the general 'soil food web' that you are trying to kickstart. If the midden gets too large to enable easy turning, I make another one. If that gets too big, I make a third one and so on...

Recommended reading:

*Taylor, Dr. Paul (ed.), 'The biochar revolution: Transforming agriculture and environment', 2010, Global Publishing Group, Australia

*Woods, William I. (ed.) et al, 'Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision', 2009, Springer, USA

* Lowenfels, Jeff and Lewis, Wayne, 'Teaming with microbes: A gardener's guide to the soil food web', 2006, Timber Press, USA

*Lowenfels, Jeff, 'Teaming with nutrients: The organic gardener's guide to optimizing plant nutrition', 2016, Timber Press, USA

*Author unknown, 'Great garden formulas: The ultimate book of mix-it-yourself concoctions for your garden', 2006, publisher and place unknown

*Reddy, Rohini, 'Cho's global natural farming', 2011, SARRA, South Korea

Many more to mention plus google searches for 'soil' and 'compost' will reveal lots of links...

Both graphene (made of Carbon atoms) and beehive cells/honeycomb use hexagonal geometry - the least material needed per shape perimeter/walls, high stability and presumably optimal volume too. These design principles were integrated into the 'Carbon'.
Both graphene (made of Carbon atoms) and beehive cells/honeycomb use hexagonal geometry - the least material needed per shape perimeter/walls, high stability and presumably optimal volume too. These design principles were integrated into the 'Carbon'.
Oregon Hybrid Kiln V2
A flatpackable/transportable adaptation of Kelpie Wilson's original 'Oregon' forestry waste kiln. Designed for 2mm hot rolled steel. Next version will be designed for 2.5mm hot rolled steel.
Oregon Hybrid Kiln V2.zip
Compressed Archive in ZIP Format 57.8 KB
The Oregon Hybrid Kiln (OHK) inaugural burn with the original Flat-Tiki foldable heat shield
The Oregon Hybrid Kiln (OHK) inaugural burn with the original Flat-Tiki foldable heat shield
The Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK)
Modular, lightweight, flat-packable (transportable), extendable (expandable volume). Good for most sizes of feedstock eg. bamboo, rice straw. Can be used as a 'swale machine' using the FMBK in hybrid mode by digging a pit underneath the kiln. Every burn can be used to extend the length of the swale. To obtain soil-free biochar, use a soaked HD canvas drop sheet (experimental)/soaked carpet (ensuring no gaps on top of kiln) to snuff the burn. To obtain a biochar blend, use soil from the pit, compost and additional clay if available to snuff the burn. Leave some of mix in swale for planting and remainder for top soil layer in wicking beds or wicking pots. Soil-free biochar for wicking aquifers & aquaponics. If mix is too alkaline, to quote Dr PT "sprinkle on some Iron sulphate as you go. You can spray on some phosphoric acid to the milled or un-milled biochar; do a titration on a small volume first to see how much you need". Designed with 1.5mm Corten steel.
Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK).pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.4 MB
The Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK) assembled for first time
The Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK) assembled for first time
The FMBK inaugural burn
The FMBK inaugural burn
The FMBK in Oregon hybrid mode (with dodgy logo)
The FMBK in Oregon hybrid mode (with dodgy logo)
The Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT) kiln
Modular, lightweight, flat-packable (transportable). Good for shorter/smaller feedstock. I would recommend 2.5mm hot rolled steel since corten is not available in this sheet size
Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT).pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.7 MB
The Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT) Heat Shield
Lightweight, transportable, increases the efficiency of the biochar burn. Designed for 0.6mm hot rolled steel.
Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT) Heat Shield.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.1 MB
Kon-Tiki 'Mini'
A biochar kiln for the home gardener. Can also be used as a 3 in 1 - biochar kiln, BBQ and fire pit. Recommended to build with 2.5mm hot rolled steel. Just add optional tilting frame and drain. Suitable for use in between the fire seasons. Inspired by Dr Paul Taylor, Hans-Peter Schmidt and original 'Moki' kiln
Kon-Tiki 'Mini'.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 312.2 KB
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m - original cone design by Dr Paul Taylor. Built with 3mm mild steel - next version will use 2.5mm hot rolled steel..
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m - original cone design by Dr Paul Taylor. Built with 3mm mild steel - next version will use 2.5mm hot rolled steel..
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m at night
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m at night
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m with torroidal convection loop - needed for super-clean emissions
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m with torroidal convection loop - needed for super-clean emissions
The 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' - Build in conjuntion with the 'Original design for pyramid kiln translated to metric measurements' below
A 3 in 1 biochar kiln, BBQ and fire pit. Suitable for use in between the fire seasons
Pyramid BBQ 'Classic' - bent legs - fina
JPG Image 3.7 MB
The 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' - a cheeky BBQ before getting into making a batch of biochar. Built with 1.5mm Corten steel - next version will have top folds.
The 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' - a cheeky BBQ before getting into making a batch of biochar. Built with 1.5mm Corten steel - next version will have top folds.
Original design for pyramid kiln translated to metric measurements
Original design by Kelpie Wilson
The 'Pyramid' biochar kiln.jpg
JPG Image 3.4 MB
The original Pyramid kiln - first light. Built with 3mm mild steel.
The original Pyramid kiln - first light. Built with 3mm mild steel.
Literary review of pyrolysis reactors
Published by Washington State Department of Ecology 2011
!!lit review of pyrolysis reactors.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 6.8 MB
Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/ Biochar Production
A comparison of flame cap/curtain/TFOD kilns
Kiln showdown - HPS, PT et al.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 612.7 KB
A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power
As the title suggests - possible application for waste heat recovery on flame curtain/cap/TFOD kilns
A thermally regenerative ammonia-based b
Adobe Acrobat Document 987.2 KB

Microbial fuel cells

Microbial fuel cell as new technology for bioelectricity generation: A review
Broad overview of MFC technology - probably best to read first before getting into the nitty gritty of it all
Microbial fuel cell as new technology fo
Adobe Acrobat Document 704.0 KB
Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells
Love those nanowires
Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power micr
Adobe Acrobat Document 535.2 KB
Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer with Biochar.pdf
Mentions Geobacter sulfurreducens
Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.1 MB
Yu, L. et al. Biochar as an electron shuttle for reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by Geobacter sulfurreducens. Sci. Rep. 5, 16221; doi: 10.1038/srep16221 (2015)
Modelling of biochar with Geobacter sulfurreducens to dechlorinate PCP. Complicated but some interesting results - also worth considering when combining biochar electrodes with Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell (possibly using contaminated soil with biochar/biochar-compost)
Biochar_as_an_electron_shuttle_for_reduc
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.3 MB
'The impacts of biochar and compost on microbial extracellular electron transfer processes as shown by studies on soil microbial fuel cells' Aurelio Briones and Allison Torres, University of Idaho
Promising results for a 'compost and biochar' soil microbial fuel cell (SMFC). It would be interesting to build one with biochar electrodes and couple to a supercapacitor also with biochar electrodes for a hybrid energy production and storage system - an almost sustainable power source!
MFC EET compost+biochar.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.3 MB
Biochar Based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) for Enhanced Wastewater Treatment and Nutrient Recovery
An awesome research project about using MFCs using biochar electrodes to purify wastewater while at the same time generating power, reclaiming nutrients and sequestrating carbon (as the spent biochar electrodes can be used as a soil amendment)
!!Biochar Based Microbial Fuel Cell for
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.3 MB
Microbial Fuel Cell and Reverse Electrodialysis Technologies for Renewable Power Generation From Biomass and Salinity Gradients
A must read for renewable energy enthusiasts!
Microbial Fuel Cell and Reverse Electrod
Adobe Acrobat Document 15.0 MB
High-Selectivity Electrochemical Conversion of CO2 to Ethanol using a Copper Nanoparticle/N-Doped Graphene Electrode
Biochar is primarily constructed from graphene sheets and bucky balls...looks like biochar can be doped with google search "Can biochar be doped?" Need to pay for the articles ): Unless you have access at a Uni...
High-Selectivity Electrochemical Convers
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.9 MB

Biochar and viticulture

Opportunities for the re-use of winery industry solid wastes
As the title suggests - good overview but nothing specific about biochar
Opportunities for the reuse of winery in
Adobe Acrobat Document 223.8 KB
Utilisation of Winery Waste Biomass in Fluidised bed Gasification and Combustion
Biochar kiln technology could be used instead of the coal industry's preferred 'fluidised bed gasification and combustion' technology
Utilisation of Winery Waste Biomass in F
Adobe Acrobat Document 5.1 MB
Improving vineyard water efficiency by addition of biochar derived from grape stalks and vineyard prunings
Improving vineyard water efficiency by a
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.3 MB
Grape marc biochar mix - effects on soil structure, water efficiency and fertilizer productivity
Grape marc biochar mix.ppt
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 15.5 MB
Biochar use for Finger Lakes vineyards
devinecharprojectv4-140926113057-phpapp0
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 4.4 MB
Delinat guidelines for wineries
Based on experience with Mythopia vineyard in Switzerland
guidelines_delinat_2013.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.0 MB

Biochar wicking beds and pots

A biochar IBC wicking bed - if the cat loves it, it must be good
A biochar IBC wicking bed - if the cat loves it, it must be good
Biochar wicking pots - half biochar in base for water filtration, half Permafert in top for minerals, nutrients, bacteria and fungus, soil biota
Biochar wicking pots - half biochar in base for water filtration, half Permafert in top for minerals, nutrients, bacteria and fungus, soil biota
Mint in a biochar wicking pot in series with two other biochar wicking pots
Mint in a biochar wicking pot in series with two other biochar wicking pots

Misc biochar information

Biocharculture
A fantastic overview of biochar culture, mostly in India by Dr Sai Bhaskar N. Reddy
Biocharculture-Book_20_8_2014_finalSF.pd
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.4 MB
An (almost) bio-based household economy
Using biochar for various functions at the household economy level
Bio-based household economy.jpg
JPG Image 2.4 MB

Fenugreek (front) and Dill (back) seedlings using biochar in a fancy potting mix with sphagnum moss and peat. Note that biochar has a higher water holding capacity (WHC) than the original potting mix. Adding it increases the overall WHC. I also add a low concentration of Seasol and GoGo Juice to the irrigation water from my 15L weed sprayer backpack in order enhance root growth and potting mix microbial activity.

The ol' biochar piss bucket - no odour, water saving, full of nitrogen/urea for the Permafert
The ol' biochar piss bucket - no odour, water saving, full of nitrogen/urea for the Permafert
Biochar for indoor air filtration - nanoscale surface area - does the job
Biochar for indoor air filtration - nanoscale surface area - does the job
Biochar for water filtration
Biochar for water filtration
An Australian drop of Russian-style vodka that is 'Charcoal filtered' - think 'Biochar filtered' and the good thing is used distillers grain can be used to produce biochar!
An Australian drop of Russian-style vodka that is 'Charcoal filtered' - think 'Biochar filtered' and the good thing is used distillers grain can be used to produce biochar!
Even Arnott's love hexagonal geometry - that's what I call a well-engineered biscuit!!
Even Arnott's love hexagonal geometry - that's what I call a well-engineered biscuit!!

Closed loop for traditional farmers in SE Asia

Harvest bamboo/rice straw/rice husk-->chop up bamboo/dry bamboo/rice straw/rice husk feedstock-->cook taro on TLUD gasifier/cogeneration via biochar kiln->add the biochar to the animal feed (+ use biochar for water filtration)-->feed to water buffaloe/cow/pig-->livestock shits->take the manure/biochar complex and add to biodigester (biochar also reduces smell)-->collect the gas for cooking/electricity-->take the biodigester effluent/byproduct and add to soil-->grow the taro/rice/bamboo-->harvest (back to the start)

A biomass-biochar stove
Individual project while undertaking a Diploma of Permaculture at the former Permaforest Trust in Byron Bay, 2009-2010. Published by James Jenkinson 2010
PFT individual project - A biomass-bioch
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 6.0 MB
Perchigation/Biochar cell/Botanical cell
Dr N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy's design for a 'perchigation' system which basically comprises plastic lined cells with a layer of biochar in the bottom half and soil in the top half with biochar compost plantings; the cells are intra-cellularly connected by irrigation pipes. Water flows freely through cells via gravity and is filtrated by the biochar. Good for poor water quality. The 'wicking effect' is employed that allows a flow of water from the biochar saturated/irrigated section and flows upwards through the plant roots.
biocharperchedwaterirrigationperchigatio
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 249.5 KB
Biochar blends
Published by Dr N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy
!bcblends.jpg
JPG Image 131.2 KB
CO 2 -fixing one-carbon metabolism in a cellulose- degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum
Awesome potential for CO2 sequestration by inoculating biochar with Clostridium thermocellum (may need some GE...gulp)
CO 2 -fixing one-carbon metabolism in a
Adobe Acrobat Document 1'012.1 KB
An Environmentally Friendly Engineered Azotobacter Strain That Replaces a Substantial Amount of Urea Fertilizer while Sustaining the Same Wheat Yield
Bacterial Nitrogen fixation with an Azotobacter strain - once again, could be used to inoculate biochar
An environment friendly engineered Azoto
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.2 MB
Quantum information processing in carbon
A snapshot of the future of carbon-based computing
Quantum information processing in carbon
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.0 MB
Towards a fullerene-based quantum computer
Carbon-based nano-quantum computer
Towards a fullerene-based quantum comput
Adobe Acrobat Document 764.9 KB
Progress of biochar supercapacitors
Published in 2013 - much progress since then but good snapshot and some great pictures
Progress of Biochar Supercapacitors.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.2 MB
Use microwave tech on biomass eg. agricultural waste for Graphene-like substance
For the Al-Graphene, no child labor for mining cobalt in the DRC required or ecological catastrophe for Lithium reserves in Salar de Uyuni. Alternatively, replace Al with biochar for electrodes.

Can use microwave tech from Kiwis on biomass eg. agricultural waste, and produce a Graphene-like substance to replace expensive and less sustainable Graphene.

ZapGo white paper 2017 - Carbon-Ion (C-Ion) energy storage for a range of electronic applications
ZapGo-White-paper-2017.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 553.8 KB

Bamboo biochar

World bamboo resources: A thematic study prepared in the framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005
Fascinating overview of world bamboo resources. I'm looking forward to an up-to-date version from GABAR
World bamboo resources A thematic study
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.1 MB
Phytolith-occluded organic C in intensively managed Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) stands and implications for carbon sequestration
Research on phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC)/'plantstone'/'plant opal'/'opal phytolith'/'biogenic opal'/'silica cells'/'grass opal' in bamboo focusing on intensively managed Lei bamboo. Could biochar produced with high yielding PhytOC biomass be the key to long-term carbon bio-sequestration?
Phytolith-occluded organic C in intensiv
Adobe Acrobat Document 892.8 KB
Carbon bio-sequestration within the phytoliths of economic bamboo species
This paper examines bamboo leaf litter of 10 economic bamboo species and it's ability to form PhytOC for long-term carbon bio-sequestration. Bamboo biochar IBC MFC anyone?
!Carbon bio-sequestration within the phy
Adobe Acrobat Document 356.5 KB
Soil carbon sequestration in phytoliths
More info on phytoliths by J.F. Parr and L.A. Sullivan . To quote an intersting excerpt "...the resistance of PhytOC against decomposition processes resulted in PhytOC comprising up to 82% (with a mean of 42%) of the total carbon pool in the buried topsoils after 1000 years of decomposition.
Soil carbon sequestration in phytoliths,
Adobe Acrobat Document 243.4 KB
Slow Pyrolysis of Bamboo Biomass: Analysis of Biochar Properties
Provides a methodology for assessing bamboo biochar
Slow Pyrolysis of Bamboo Biomass: Analys
Adobe Acrobat Document 855.3 KB

Biochar co-operatives?

ICA - Blueprint for a co-operative decade
Published by the International Co-operative Alliance
ICA Blueprint - Final - Feb 13 EN.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.3 MB
World Food Day 2012 - Agricultural Co-operatives: Key to feeding the world - FAO
Published by Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations 2012
World_Food_Day_2012_Leaflet.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 841.7 KB
How to start a co-op
Published by the International Co-operative Alliance
How to establish a co-op_0.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 60.7 KB

Misc photos

Olive branch - late harvest. I will experiment with olive trees as a pioneer species (micro-climate and Nitrogen-fixation) for a Mediterranean food forest - with a 50cm diameter hexagon x 50cm deep hole in ground using designer Permafert. Just add goats.
Olive branch - late harvest. I will experiment with olive trees as a pioneer species (micro-climate and Nitrogen-fixation) for a Mediterranean food forest - with a 50cm diameter hexagon x 50cm deep hole in ground using designer Permafert. Just add goats.
Olives drying out before bottling (see Milkwood Permaculture for instructions). Olives make me happy!!
Olives drying out before bottling (see Milkwood Permaculture for instructions). Olives make me happy!!
Hemp seed (left) and beans (right) in Nepal. Integrated as a traditional polyculture system.
Hemp seed (left) and beans (right) in Nepal. Integrated as a traditional polyculture system.
Hemp seed - the ultimate easily cropped superfood. Now legal to grow and consume in South Australia (min. one hectare which counts me out) and Australia!! 'Bout bloody time!!
Hemp seed - the ultimate easily cropped superfood. Now legal to grow and consume in South Australia (min. one hectare which counts me out) and Australia!! 'Bout bloody time!!

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