Serving suggestion...How to dismantle the 'Carbon bomb' with a modded 'industrial ecology'? Globally available sunlight harvesting - not the Ancient sunlight stuff
So there's a few comments to make on this...for a decentralised combined heat and power (CHAP) solution for biochar production I would recommend the ECHO2 from 'Rainbow Bee Eater' which has been successfully used at the Holla-Fresh herb/produce production facility. It may turn out that Kon-Tiki biochar kilns and TLUDs (via co-operatives that collect biochar from people's homes) could provide enough biochar/feedstock for Fullerene extraction (and slow-release fertiliser combined with 'Green ammonia'). However, for large scale biochar production, Earth Systems make a great shipping container biochar kiln (I think used by 'Green Man Char') which could be located close to the 'Green Hydrogen' plant and use agricultural/horticultural/forestry/agroforestry residue 'waste' from nearby productive land. If the 'Green Hydrogen' plant that also produces 'Green Ammonia' is located near a port eg. Port Lincoln (currently being prototyped) AND productive land, this can supply farmers with ammonia that can be combined with biochar for slow-release fertiliser, and access practically unlimited seawater (without using valuable freshwater) for solar electrolysis. Or the kiln(s) could be located at the productive land if there is none near the port and the 'Green ammonia' could be transported and combined with the biochar there. Solar desalination could be used if the electrolysis cannot cope with high TDS. A plant situated at a port is also primed for export of 'Green Hydrogen' and 'Green ammonia' but ideally supply is used (and guaranteed) for local consumption first before exporting the excess/surplus.
RE: In my previous blog I referenced research on using seawater in (solar) electrolysis - it's doable, just needs more R&D. If there are other contaminants or unwanted ions or molecules in the seawater biochar could be used for a first stage water filtration before the electrolysis
RE: the Fullerene organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs) - still a lot of R&D is needed but is good candidate for sustainable Carbon-based OPVs that provide many junctions for electron transfer and consequent efficiency gains. Potentially, heterojunction OPVs using Fullerenes could overtake multi-junction Silicon-based PVs that have just reached 50% efficiency in the lab - a world record.
RE: 'Green Hydrogen storage' - could use biochar to lower the required pressure and increase Hydrogen energy density due to it's enormous surface area on the nano-scale in the 3D matrix (as opposed to the unsustainable Aluminium 'bath sponge'). One cubic centimetre of high surface area biochar has the same surface area of a football field
RE: biochar electrodes. These have been shown to have large efficiency gains compared to conventional electrodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This is currently an intensely researched area of R&D
RE: cradle to grave design of the OPVs, ideally, at the end of the lifespan the panels could be treated by using 'Green chemistry' to produce a non-toxic substrate for fertiliser (similar to biochar) combined with 'Green ammonia' (and whatever else the soil needs to grow plants eg.Permafert). This could prevent future generations of used PVs littering the planet as junk/waste!
RE: 'Green steel'. H2 can be used to reduce Iron ore