Resources

"Trajectories of the Earth System in the Anthropocene" by Emeritus Professor Will Steffen and team
Where we are heading if we don't rapidly adopt 'Earth Stewardship' - once again, a warning not to exceed approximately 2 degrees Celsius global temperature increase above pre-industrial levels
Trajectories of the Earth System in the
Adobe Acrobat Document 854.2 KB

Disclaimer: As much as I love apptech, the technology itself shouldn't be that which takes over our lives. What's more important is that plenty of biochar is produced and integrated into the economies of the world so that over time we can eventually and safely drawdown Carbon out of the atmosphere and prevent or even reverse global climate heating and restore a safe climate. It's a climate emergency! The change to the environment that biochar could bring is partly known and partly unknown but the possibilities are endless and continually fascinate me!

Biochar kiln information - a kiln for (almost) every application...

Oregon Hybrid Kiln V2
A flatpackable/transportable adaptation of Kelpie Wilson's original 'Oregon' forestry waste kiln. Designed for 2mm hot rolled steel. Next version will be designed for 3mm hot rolled steel.
Oregon Hybrid Kiln V2.zip
Compressed Archive in ZIP Format 57.8 KB
The Oregon Hybrid Kiln (OHK) inaugural burn with the original Flat-Tiki foldable heat shield
The Oregon Hybrid Kiln (OHK) inaugural burn with the original Flat-Tiki foldable heat shield
The Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK)
Modular, lightweight, flat-packable (transportable), extendable (expandable volume). Good for most sizes of feedstock eg. bamboo, rice straw. Can be used as a 'swale machine' using the FMBK in hybrid mode by digging a pit underneath the kiln. Every burn can be used to extend the length of the swale. To obtain soil-free biochar, use a soaked HD canvas drop sheet (experimental)/soaked carpet (ensuring no gaps on top of kiln) to snuff the burn. To obtain a biochar blend, use soil from the pit, compost and additional clay if available to snuff the burn. Leave some of mix in swale for planting and remainder for top soil layer in wicking beds or wicking pots. Soil-free biochar for wicking aquifers & aquaponics. If mix is too alkaline, to quote Dr PT "sprinkle on some Iron sulphate as you go. You can spray on some phosphoric acid to the milled or un-milled biochar; do a titration on a small volume first to see how much you need". Designed with 1.5mm Corten steel.
Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK).pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.4 MB
The Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK) assembled for first time
The Flat Modular Biochar Kiln (FMBK) assembled for first time
The FMBK inaugural burn
The FMBK inaugural burn
The FMBK in Oregon hybrid mode (with dodgy logo)
The FMBK in Oregon hybrid mode (with dodgy logo)
The Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT) kiln
Modular, lightweight, flat-packable (transportable). Good for shorter/smaller feedstock. I would recommend 3mm mild steel since corten is not available in this sheet size
Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT).pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.7 MB
The Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT) Heat Shield
Lightweight, transportable, increases the efficiency of the biochar burn. Designed for 0.6mm hot rolled steel.
Flat-Tiki Tent (FTT) Heat Shield.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.1 MB
Kon-Tiki 'Mini'
A biochar kiln for the home gardener. Can also be used as a 3 in 1 - biochar kiln, BBQ and fire pit. Recommended to build with 3mm mild steel. Just add optional tilting frame and drain. Suitable for use in between the fire seasons. Inspired by Dr Paul Taylor, Hans-Peter Schmidt and original 'Moki' kiln
Kon-Tiki 'Mini'.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 312.2 KB
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m - original cone design by Dr Paul Taylor. Built with 3mm mild steel - next version will use 2.5mm hot rolled steel..
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m - original cone design by Dr Paul Taylor. Built with 3mm mild steel - next version will use 2.5mm hot rolled steel..
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m at night
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m at night
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m with torroidal convection loop - needed for super-clean emissions
The Kon-Tiki 1.2m with torroidal convection loop - needed for super-clean emissions
The 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' - Build in conjuntion with the 'Original design for pyramid kiln translated to metric measurements' below
A 3 in 1 biochar kiln, BBQ and fire pit. Suitable for use in between the fire seasons
Pyramid BBQ 'Classic' - bent legs - fina
JPG Image 3.7 MB
The 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' - a cheeky BBQ before getting into making a batch of biochar. Built with 1.5mm Corten steel - next version will have top folds.
The 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' - a cheeky BBQ before getting into making a batch of biochar. Built with 1.5mm Corten steel - next version will have top folds.
Original design for pyramid kiln translated to metric measurements
Original design by Kelpie Wilson
The 'Pyramid' biochar kiln.jpg
JPG Image 3.4 MB
The original Pyramid kiln - first light. Built with 3mm mild steel.
The original Pyramid kiln - first light. Built with 3mm mild steel.
Literary review of pyrolysis reactors
Published by Washington State Department of Ecology 2011
!!lit review of pyrolysis reactors.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 6.8 MB
Emissions and Char Quality of Flame-Curtain "Kon Tiki" Kilns for Farmer-Scale Charcoal/ Biochar Production
A comparison of flame cap/curtain/TFOD kilns
Kiln showdown - HPS, PT et al.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 612.7 KB
A thermally regenerative ammonia-based battery for efficient harvesting of low-grade thermal energy as electrical power
As the title suggests - possible application for waste heat recovery on flame curtain/cap/TFOD kilns
A thermally regenerative ammonia-based b
Adobe Acrobat Document 987.2 KB

Biochar-making tech overview

I've summarised the above kilns and stoves according to biomass feedstock size. Note that my preference for biochar apptech is completely biased since I designed most of what I'm about to recommend (with a lot of help from my friends):

*Small feedstock eg. Pellets/sticks/coconut shell/corn cob/rice husk etc. - Try the '1G Toucan TLUD' or 'The 'Permastove V3' (beta - still need to prototype it) for cooking and biochar making

*Small to medium feedstock eg. large sticks, bamboo, small cut logs etc. - Try the 'Pyramid BBQ Classic' (3 in 1 BBQ, firepit, biochar making)

*Medium to large feedstock eg. Bamboo, brush, agroforestry waste, rice straw, small branches etc. - Try the Flat-Tiki 'Carbon' V3 (beta) or Kon-Tiki 1.2m production model - biomass 'waste' removal, biochar making, heat on a cold day

*Large feedstock eg. cut and split logs etc. - slow combustion stove/wood-fired Aga (I don't think I can improve/redesign these - quite refined tech) - produces small amounts of biochar but mostly ash (a good source of minerals and alkaline pH adjustment for acidic soils). Also good for space heating, heating water eg. wetbacking cogen for a solar hot water system, water pastuerisation, making a hot drink; slow cooking

Microbial fuel cells

Microbial fuel cell as new technology for bioelectricity generation: A review
Broad overview of MFC technology - probably best to read first before getting into the nitty gritty of it all
Microbial fuel cell as new technology fo
Adobe Acrobat Document 704.0 KB
Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells
Love those nanowires
Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power micr
Adobe Acrobat Document 535.2 KB
Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer with Biochar.pdf
Mentions Geobacter sulfurreducens
Promoting Interspecies Electron Transfer
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.1 MB
Yu, L. et al. Biochar as an electron shuttle for reductive dechlorination of pentachlorophenol by Geobacter sulfurreducens. Sci. Rep. 5, 16221; doi: 10.1038/srep16221 (2015)
Modelling of biochar with Geobacter sulfurreducens to dechlorinate PCP. Complicated but some interesting results - also worth considering when combining biochar electrodes with Geobacter sulfurreducens in a microbial fuel cell (possibly using contaminated soil with biochar/biochar-compost)
Biochar_as_an_electron_shuttle_for_reduc
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.3 MB
'The impacts of biochar and compost on microbial extracellular electron transfer processes as shown by studies on soil microbial fuel cells' Aurelio Briones and Allison Torres, University of Idaho
Promising results for a 'compost and biochar' soil microbial fuel cell (SMFC). It would be interesting to build one with biochar electrodes and couple to a supercapacitor also with biochar electrodes for a hybrid energy production and storage system - an almost sustainable power source!
MFC EET compost+biochar.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.3 MB
Biochar Based Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) for Enhanced Wastewater Treatment and Nutrient Recovery
An awesome research project about using MFCs using biochar electrodes to purify wastewater while at the same time generating power, reclaiming nutrients and sequestrating carbon (as the spent biochar electrodes can be used as a soil amendment)
!!Biochar Based Microbial Fuel Cell for
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.3 MB
Microbial Fuel Cell and Reverse Electrodialysis Technologies for Renewable Power Generation From Biomass and Salinity Gradients
A must read for renewable energy enthusiasts!
Microbial Fuel Cell and Reverse Electrod
Adobe Acrobat Document 15.0 MB
High-Selectivity Electrochemical Conversion of CO2 to Ethanol using a Copper Nanoparticle/N-Doped Graphene Electrode
Biochar is primarily constructed from graphene sheets and bucky balls...looks like biochar can be doped with google search "Can biochar be doped?" Need to pay for the articles ): Unless you have access at a Uni...
High-Selectivity Electrochemical Convers
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.9 MB

Biochar and viticulture

Biochar in viticulture
EGU2012-2413-1.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 32.8 KB
Delinat guidelines for wineries
Based on experience with Mythopia vineyard in Switzerland
guidelines_delinat_2013.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.0 MB
Opportunities for the re-use of winery industry solid wastes
As the title suggests - good overview but nothing specific about biochar
Opportunities for the reuse of winery in
Adobe Acrobat Document 223.8 KB
Biochar composts for improving sandy vineyard soils
Biochar composts for improving sandy vin
Adobe Acrobat Document 36.3 KB
Biochar in European Viticulture - Results of the season 2011
Biochar in European Viticulture- Results
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.6 MB
Biochar and biochar-compost as soil amendments to a vineyard soil: Influences on plant growth, nutrient uptake, plant health and grape quality
Biochar_and_biochar-compost_as_soil_amen
Adobe Acrobat Document 8.2 MB
Use of grape stalk, a waste of the viticulture industry, to obtain activated carbon
Use of grape stalk a waste of the viticu
Adobe Acrobat Document 5.6 MB
Utilisation of Winery Waste Biomass in Fluidised bed Gasification and Combustion
Biochar kiln technology could be used instead of the coal industry's preferred 'fluidised bed gasification and combustion' technology
Utilisation of Winery Waste Biomass in F
Adobe Acrobat Document 5.1 MB
Improving vineyard water efficiency by addition of biochar derived from grape stalks and vineyard prunings
Improving vineyard water efficiency by a
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.3 MB
Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to improve quality and postharvest life of table grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Flame Seedless
Preharvest salicylic acid treatments to
Adobe Acrobat Document 791.0 KB
Grape marc biochar mix - effects on soil structure, water efficiency and fertilizer productivity
Grape marc biochar mix.ppt
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 15.5 MB
Biochar use for Finger Lakes vineyards
devinecharprojectv4-140926113057-phpapp0
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 4.4 MB

Biochar wicking beds and pots

A biochar IBC wicking bed - if the cat loves it, it must be good
A biochar IBC wicking bed - if the cat loves it, it must be good
Biochar wicking pots - half biochar in base for water filtration, half Permafert in top for minerals, nutrients, bacteria and fungus, soil biota
Biochar wicking pots - half biochar in base for water filtration, half Permafert in top for minerals, nutrients, bacteria and fungus, soil biota
Mint in a biochar wicking pot in series with two other biochar wicking pots
Mint in a biochar wicking pot in series with two other biochar wicking pots
The Permachar Wicking Pot (PWP) - available for sale from June 2019
The Permachar Wicking Pot (PWP) - available for sale from June 2019
Perchigation/Biochar cell/Botanical cell
Dr N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy's design for a 'perchigation' system which basically comprises plastic lined cells with a layer of biochar in the bottom half and soil in the top half with biochar compost plantings; the cells are intra-cellularly connected by irrigation pipes. Water flows freely through cells via gravity and is filtrated by the biochar. Good for poor water quality. The 'wicking effect' is employed that allows a flow of water from the biochar saturated/irrigated section and flows upwards through the plant roots.
biocharperchedwaterirrigationperchigatio
Microsoft Power Point Presentation 249.5 KB

Misc biochar photos

Fenugreek (front) and Dill (back) seedlings using biochar in a fancy potting mix with sphagnum moss and peat. Note that biochar has a higher water holding capacity (WHC) than the original potting mix. Adding it increases the overall WHC. I also add a low concentration of Seasol and GoGo Juice to the irrigation water from my 15L weed sprayer backpack in order enhance root growth and potting mix microbial activity.

The ol' biochar piss bucket - no odour, water saving, full of nitrogen/urea for the Permafert
The ol' biochar piss bucket - no odour, water saving, full of nitrogen/urea for the Permafert
Biochar for indoor air filtration - nanoscale surface area - does the job
Biochar for indoor air filtration - nanoscale surface area - does the job
Biochar for water filtration
Biochar for water filtration
An Australian drop of Russian-style vodka that is 'Charcoal filtered' - think 'Biochar filtered' and the good thing is used distillers grain can be used to produce biochar!
An Australian drop of Russian-style vodka that is 'Charcoal filtered' - think 'Biochar filtered' and the good thing is used distillers grain can be used to produce biochar!
Even Arnott's love hexagonal geometry - that's what I call a well-engineered biscuit!!
Even Arnott's love hexagonal geometry - that's what I call a well-engineered biscuit!!

Carbon-based energy storage

Progress of biochar supercapacitors
Published in 2013 - much progress since then but good snapshot and some great pictures
Progress of Biochar Supercapacitors.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.2 MB
Use microwave tech on biomass eg. agricultural waste for Graphene-like substance
For the Al-Graphene, no child labor for mining cobalt in the DRC required or ecological catastrophe for Lithium reserves in Salar de Uyuni. Alternatively, replace Al with biochar for electrodes.

Can use microwave tech from Kiwis on biomass eg. agricultural waste, and produce a Graphene-like substance to replace expensive and less sustainable Graphene.

ZapGo white paper 2017 - Carbon-Ion (C-Ion) energy storage for a range of electronic applications
ZapGo-White-paper-2017.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 553.8 KB

Carbon-based computing

Quantum information processing in carbon
A snapshot of the future of carbon-based computing
Quantum information processing in carbon
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.0 MB
Towards a fullerene-based quantum computer
Carbon-based nano-quantum computer
Towards a fullerene-based quantum comput
Adobe Acrobat Document 764.9 KB

Bamboo biochar

World bamboo resources: A thematic study prepared in the framework of the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005
Fascinating overview of world bamboo resources. I'm looking forward to an up-to-date version from GABAR
World bamboo resources A thematic study
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.1 MB
Phytolith-occluded organic C in intensively managed Lei bamboo (Phyllostachys praecox) stands and implications for carbon sequestration
Research on phytolith-occluded carbon (PhytOC)/'plantstone'/'plant opal'/'opal phytolith'/'biogenic opal'/'silica cells'/'grass opal' in bamboo focusing on intensively managed Lei bamboo. Could biochar produced with high yielding PhytOC biomass be the key to long-term carbon bio-sequestration?
Phytolith-occluded organic C in intensiv
Adobe Acrobat Document 892.8 KB
Carbon bio-sequestration within the phytoliths of economic bamboo species
This paper examines bamboo leaf litter of 10 economic bamboo species and it's ability to form PhytOC for long-term carbon bio-sequestration. Bamboo biochar IBC MFC anyone?
!Carbon bio-sequestration within the phy
Adobe Acrobat Document 356.5 KB
Soil carbon sequestration in phytoliths
More info on phytoliths by J.F. Parr and L.A. Sullivan . To quote an intersting excerpt "...the resistance of PhytOC against decomposition processes resulted in PhytOC comprising up to 82% (with a mean of 42%) of the total carbon pool in the buried topsoils after 1000 years of decomposition.
Soil carbon sequestration in phytoliths,
Adobe Acrobat Document 243.4 KB
Slow Pyrolysis of Bamboo Biomass: Analysis of Biochar Properties
Provides a methodology for assessing bamboo biochar
Slow Pyrolysis of Bamboo Biomass: Analys
Adobe Acrobat Document 855.3 KB

Biochar in SE Asia

Closed loop for traditional farmers in SE Asia

Harvest bamboo/rice straw/rice husk-->chop up bamboo/dry bamboo/rice straw/rice husk feedstock-->cook taro on TLUD gasifier/cogeneration via biochar kiln->add the biochar to the animal feed (+ use biochar for water filtration)-->feed to water buffaloe/cow/pig-->livestock shits->take the manure/biochar complex and add to biodigester (biochar also reduces smell)-->collect the gas for cooking/electricity-->take the biodigester effluent/byproduct and add to soil-->grow the taro/rice/bamboo-->harvest (back to the start)

How biochar could be integrated into a SE Asian economy
Biochar Mind Map V2.jpg
JPG Image 887.0 KB
By Dr Paul A. Olivier - many different ideas happening for integrated biochar, animal and permaculture systems
Raising Pigs, chickens and Cows - Paul O
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.8 MB
As the title suggests, also by Dr Paul A. Olivier. More biochar applications...
Making waste our greatest resource.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.1 MB

Biochar co-operatives?

ICA - Blueprint for a co-operative decade
Published by the International Co-operative Alliance
ICA Blueprint - Final - Feb 13 EN.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.3 MB
World Food Day 2012 - Agricultural Co-operatives: Key to feeding the world - FAO
Published by Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations 2012
World_Food_Day_2012_Leaflet.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 841.7 KB
How to start a co-op
Published by the International Co-operative Alliance
How to establish a co-op_0.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 60.7 KB
The Nori white paper for Carbon removal from the atmosphere V3.0
nori.com white-paper V3.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 1'020.3 KB
The NORI-biochar plan - a discussion paper
How to integrate NORI with biochar and biochar technology
The NORI-biochar plan – a discussion pap
exe File 7.0 KB

Biochar and desalination

Electrocapacitive Desalination of Brackish Water Using Biochars
Looks promising! Energy efficient desal using biochar as capacitors. Could be very helpful to lot of people in Outback Australia as well as for islanders, low-lying cities and countries with saline infiltration into their freshwater aquifers due to rising sea levels as a result of climate change
116.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 805.4 KB

Misc biochar information

Biocharculture
A fantastic overview of biochar culture, mostly in India by Dr Sai Bhaskar N. Reddy
Biocharculture-Book_20_8_2014_finalSF.pd
Adobe Acrobat Document 2.4 MB
Offgrid living for semi-permanent/permanent settlements
Barrels, buckets, water and biochar.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 27.8 KB
How to make Permafert and what to do with it!
Permafert2.pdf
Adobe Acrobat Document 68.0 KB
An (almost) bio-based household economy
Using biochar for various functions at the household economy level
Bio-based household economy.JPG
JPG Image 2.4 MB
Biochar blends
Published by Dr N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy
!bcblends.jpg
JPG Image 131.2 KB
Pioneering works in biochar research, Japan
An interesting overview of biochar usage in Japan and other Asian countries. Use of fertiliser blends with biochar are also studied.
Pioneering works in biochar research, Ja
Adobe Acrobat Document 845.7 KB
CO 2 -fixing one-carbon metabolism in a cellulose- degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum
Awesome potential for CO2 sequestration by inoculating biochar with Clostridium thermocellum (may need some GE...gulp)
CO 2 -fixing one-carbon metabolism in a
Adobe Acrobat Document 1'012.1 KB
An Environmentally Friendly Engineered Azotobacter Strain That Replaces a Substantial Amount of Urea Fertilizer while Sustaining the Same Wheat Yield
Bacterial Nitrogen fixation with an Azotobacter strain - once again, could be used to inoculate biochar
An environment friendly engineered Azoto
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.2 MB
Making the links between biochar and graphene
Activated biochar.zip
Compressed Archive in ZIP Format 72.7 MB

Something to think about - where do you fit?

Misc photos

Olive branch - late harvest. I will experiment with olive trees as a pioneer species (micro-climate and Nitrogen-fixation) for a Mediterranean food forest - with a 50cm diameter hexagon x 50cm deep hole in ground using designer Permafert. Just add goats.
Olive branch - late harvest. I will experiment with olive trees as a pioneer species (micro-climate and Nitrogen-fixation) for a Mediterranean food forest - with a 50cm diameter hexagon x 50cm deep hole in ground using designer Permafert. Just add goats.
Olives drying out before bottling (see Milkwood Permaculture for instructions). Olives make me happy!!
Olives drying out before bottling (see Milkwood Permaculture for instructions). Olives make me happy!!
Hemp seed (left) and beans (right) in Nepal. Integrated as a traditional polyculture system.
Hemp seed (left) and beans (right) in Nepal. Integrated as a traditional polyculture system.
Hemp seed - the ultimate easily cropped superfood. Now legal to grow and consume in South Australia (min. one hectare which counts me out) and Australia!! 'Bout bloody time!!
Hemp seed - the ultimate easily cropped superfood. Now legal to grow and consume in South Australia (min. one hectare which counts me out) and Australia!! 'Bout bloody time!!

Could hemp grow in the desert?

The idea I am proposing involves growing acacias, coppicing them, making biochar, creating a biochar fertiliser called Permafert (inc. Response), digging swales slightly off contour (to avoid 'wet feet'), adding the Permafert to the bottom of the swales, placing microdrippers along the top using the 'Measured Irrigation' system,  growing hemp (using an appropriate cultivar) then using the hemp for more biochar, housing (using hempcrete and replacing the lime with biochar: 'hempcharcrete'), food (hemp seed, hemp protein, hemp oil),  biodiesel (as a last resort) and many other uses. I would also like to trial biochar filtration for groundwater from a bore and investigate water quality as a result of the filtration - used for 'Measured Irrigation' of the hemp plants. Irrigate when the swales have a below optimal moisture content determined by swale cores and evaporation levels. Start with a 1 hectare trial. Anyone interested?

'Gyanbisuna' organic farm and research station, Annapurna region, Nepal
A demonstration of integrated permaculture and biochar design. Still waiting on funds for the project - please help!
gyanbisuna-1ST draft.jpg
JPG Image 1.5 MB
'Gyanbisuna' 3D model - can be viewed in Google 'Sketchup'
Just for fun
Gyanbisuna - 3D - terraces - with models
exe File 10.8 MB

Please share some money for Permachar R & D

If you found this information useful, please share some money for further Permachar R & D. A recommended amount is AUD$10 - more if you feel really generous. Thanks!! Please use the link below...