Project Golf Buggy

OK. So I was getting all excited about outback 'Adventure' transport and Mars space research (see 'Blogs') when it occurred to me that the ol' golf buggy could be due for a retrofit with biochar. Maybe it's time to upgrade the ol' golf clubs and retrofit a golf buggy with a prototype biochar battery/supercapacitor and solar roof that I've been thinking about for a while.

 

Here are some potential tech specs:

Solar panel roof made from 'flash graphene'/twisting chromophore PV cells embedded in a biochar-based biocomposite

A biochar battery/supercapacitor with the following considerations:
current draw
Capacitance

high Coulombic/Faradaic efficiency
conductivity
durabiity eg. vibration, operating temperature range: subzero to 60 degrees (climate change is a bitch but no reason to stop playing golf, maybe in a space suit)
high 'depth of discharge 'DoD'
many lifecycles at high performance eg. 10,000+

high energy density
modularity eg. easily drop in battery replacement
maintenance - minimal or none
battery/supercapacitor management system with colour LED touch panel:
    Overload protection,
    Short circuit protection,
    Over temperature protection.
    Over discharge protection,
    Over current protection
Australian 'green' electronics??

 

Other tech specs:

Electrodes

-bamboo biochar with hydrothermal activation then doped with bamboo leaf Si nanowires (loads of Si rich Phytoliths/PhytOCs/Plant stones in the bamboo and Si from the bamboo leaf hypothesised to increase Coulombic efficiency) eg. Electrical Conductivity of Carbon is 1*10^5 S/m and Silicon is 1*10^7 S/m

LI: What if you could combine raw biochar with raw Silicon and make artificial Silcon Carbide (SiC) nanowires then create a matrix with turbostratic 'Flash Graphene' made from raw biochar?

Electrolyte
1-graphene-like substance solid state electrolyte (with hydrothermal activation)

2- 'flash graphene' from biochar (or trash/rubbish) combined with a) ceramics, b) mesoporous Si

3-reclaimed biochar used as a sorbent for heavy metals eg.Ni, Cu (wastewater from mining)

Housing
-biochar-based biocomposite polymer shell

NOTE: At the end of the lifecycle, the electrodes, electrolyte (with the exception of 3 which could be added to concrete) and shell can be added to compost/Permafert/soil for growing plants, locking up the Carbon and Silicon in PhytOCs, or Carbon and Silicon in a biochar or Graphene matrix, for millennia to millions of years reducing the impact of climate change acceleration

NOTE2: Nanowires could be potentially harvested from exoelectrogenic bacteria and replace the Si nanowires bonded to the bamboo biochar. This could be a cheaper source of nanowires though probably less conductive than the Si nanowires

NOTE3: Silicon Carbide (SiC) nanowires could either be coated on biochar or graphene for the electrodes. They have some very interesting properties!

NOTE4: Phytoliths are crystalline structures. Crystalline structures increase conductivity. Conductivity is a desirable property for electrodes=BINGO!! So, one race could be to find a bamboo variety that has the highest density of phytoliths...

LI: what if increasing the surface area of phytolith-rich biomass eg.bamboo/grasses increases access of electrons via ?electron hopping, to the phytolith crystal (which increases conductivity)?

LI: what is the 'sweet spot' for temperature of pyrolysis and hydrothermal activation where the C is reasonably ordered and the phytoliths don't lose their structural integrity?

OR

Why not an all-kelp solid-state supercapacitor?

Sustainable kelp farming, anyone?

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/321067718_Bio-inspired_high-performance_solid-state_supercapacitors_with_electrolyte_separator_binder_and_electrodes_entirely_from_kelp

 

By the time it gets made, I'll probably need it. Unless of course some VC comes my way...

REFERENCES

Distribution of phytoliths in plants: A review
Distribution of phytoliths in plants a r
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Biochar as a sustainable electrode mater
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Biochar for Electrochemical Applications
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!Converting_Ni-loaded_biochars_into_supe
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Emerging applications of biochar-based m
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Granular biochar compared with activated
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Graphene Encapsulated Silicon Carbide Na
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!High-performance solid state supercapac
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Silicon carbide nanowires as an electrod
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