Biochar-integrated systems overview, 14th draft
Biochar apptech – by James Jenkinson, pe
Adobe Acrobat Document 1.6 MB

A renewable Carbon-based 'Green Hydrogen' economy for a 'Green Industrial Revolution 4.0'

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/330595132_Graphene-Induced_Improvements_of_Perovskite_Solar_Cell_Stability_Effects_on_Hot-Carriers

Novel Polysulfone/Carbon Nanotube-Polyamide Thin Film Nanocomposite Membranes with Improved Water Flux for Forward Osmosis Desalination
Novel Polysulfone-Carbon Nanotube-Polyam
Adobe Acrobat Document 10.5 MB
Biochar-Assisted Iron-Mediated Water Electrolysis Process for Hydrogen Production
Biochar-Assisted Iron-Mediated Water Ele
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.1 MB
Maybe Mg doped biochar to replace Mg-hydride (alloy) could be used for Hydrogen storage?
Facile_Fabrication_of_Biochar_from_Palm_
Adobe Acrobat Document 3.8 MB
Biochar as a sustainable electrode material for electricity production in microbial fuel cells
Good results for MFCs but maybe no one has tried biochar as electrodes in Hydrogen Fuel Cells (HFCs)?
Biochar as a sustainable electrode mater
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Something to think about...

There are 3 main ingredients: Sunlight, water and Carbon (from biomass/trash) + at it's core are also 3 functions:

sunlight harvesting, sunlight storage and sunlight discharge = electricity/power on demand. 

KISSS - keep it simple and sustainable, stupid

This concept is known as 'Regenerative fuel cell systems' (RFCS) or 'Unitized regenerative fuel cell' (URFC). Note that nobody can patent the chemical equation of splitting water and reforming it. If it's for the common good of the planet, why patent it? NASA had a crack at an RFCS in 2005. Various improvements have since been made but most of the working tech has been locked into a handful of companies presumably for space or military or both. I can't find any Aussie research on this. The exciting news is that in a RFCS/URFC there is a tech called the 'Proton Exchange Membrane' (PEM) which is reversible so no need for a separate electrolyser and fuel cell. The PEM could potentially be 3D-printed with Carbon nano-ink (made from converting biochar to turbostratic graphene in a 'flash graphene' process pioneered by Rice University, USA) that could print custom Graphene in a nanoprinter, eg. with holes for moving the protons H+. I'm just starting my research in this area but I think there is a real future for sustainable solar storage as the RFCS has the characteristics of high efficiency, lightweight, high energy density and many lifecycles with minimal electrode degradation and importantly, it's a closed loop system so no need for additional water or Oxygen inputs or outputs. It's also possible to substitute Platinum electrodes with graphene oxide and other graphene (Carbon) based materials or even naked and doped biochar. The hunt goes on...

Overview of Permachar Survival System (PSS)

The rest...

BENEFITS

Float more boats while saving the climate?

TEK

*Energy

Solar-powered power bank for TLUD fan, smartphones, LED lighting or other USB-powered devices

Improved lighting->reduction in blindness and increased educational opportunities

Smartphone->communications, mapping , micro-finance and millions of other benefits from apps

*TLUD stove

Cooking food - nutrition

Boiling water - kills most pathogens in water

Almost zero Carbon emissions from cooking using micro-gasification->reduction of climate change

Fuel pellets made from sustainable biomass waste eg. rice husk, saw dust etc.

Biochar from TLUD pellets->Long-term Carbon sequestration in the kitchen garden->reduction of climate change

Reduction in smoke with TLUD compared to a dirty stove or open fire ->reduction in smoke-related eye disease eg.blindness and respiratory illness

WASH

*Water filtration with biochar

Potable water (after initial boiling)

Decreased saline water and persistant organic pesticides (POP) and unhealthy bacteria or viruses that aren't killed from boiling water->decreased salt intake, toxins, water-borne disease eg. diarrhea

*Water conservation

Wastewater on kitchen garden increases water conservation for household->decreased cost of water bill and addresses potential water shortages due to population increase, climate change caused droughts, broken or inaccessible water infrastructure

*Sanitation

Potable water->drinking, personal hygiene

Treatment of sewage/sewerage with biochar (biochar 'humanure')->organic fertiliser for the kitchen garden

*Food

Food hygiene

Biochar treated sewage/sewerage fertiliser->increased kitchen garden productivity/yield and nutrition (with many other benefits to the soil and climate)

The Permachar Kit (TPK) for offgrid semi-permanent/permanent settlements

 

Feedstock

 

  • Stihl/Ozito 18V electric Chainsaw (helmet/ear muffs)

  • protective glasses

  • bar oil

  • funnel

  • kickback-proof pants (Stihl)

  • Ozito 18V electric circular saw

  • unpowered tree saw

  • wide heavy duty wheelbarrow

  • leather gloves

  • steel capped boots

  • biomass→Flat-Tiki ‘Carbon’/Kon-Tiki 1.2/1.65m biochar kiln→biochar

  • Shredder/hammer mill (BBT (petrol) or AC/DC electric hammer mill + solar generator eg. iTechworld, 1 or 2 120W MaxRay PV panel(s) with solar regulator(s) removed

Biochar Kiln

  • A Kon-Tiki 'Rolls':

    • 1*IBC

    • Optima M A 240V submersible pump (for kiln quenching and kiln draining for the Kon-Tiki)

    • iTechWorld 60 Ah battery

    • 1 or 2 120W Max Ray PV panel(s) (with solar regulator(s) removed)

    • Approximately 15m 1” rural line

    • 4* 1” end connectors (BSP)

    • 2*1/2”F to 1”F socket (BSP)

    • 2*20 litre stainless steel buckets for moving offcuts if available
  • 4 large heavy duty tarps for feedstock and biochar drying

  •  20 litre 85% phosphoric acid Food Grade (envirochemonline.com.au)
  • laser thermometer dodocool GM900 (ebay)

  • Digitech pH meter QM-1670 (Jaycar)

 

Biochar milling

  • 20 litre stainless steel bucket
  • sledgehammer for vertical pounding/crushing

The Permafert Swale (TPS)

 

  • Mattock/shovel

  • Irrigation for the TPS - 19mm poly, Netafim miniscape, fittings (threaded tap plug, takeoffs, plugs, elbows), Ozito 18V jigsaw, UMIC, MI water bladder/dam

 

Permafert middens with central drilled PVC 40mm water pipes (1m long)

 

1*IBC – cut in 2/3 – 1/3 for Permafert midden/loam + Permafert slurry/ ‘activated biochar’ mixing, 2/3 for Permafert slurry/’activated biochar’ mixing

 

Terra preta vermicompost (TPV) (used as a Compost Tea inoculum)

 

  • 4*50 litre opaque plastic containers (Bunnings/Cheap as Chips) OR

  • wheelie bin with wormsdownunder.com.au kit OR
  • bath tub OR
  • worm farm stack system PLUS
  • hessian sack (cover)
  • Tiger, red or blue 'composting' earthworms

  • coir (worm bedding)

  • milled biochar ('activated' for the Kon-Tiki) - added with food scraps

  • fungus eg. Mycorrhizal

  • food scraps

 

Compost tea (added to Permafert slurry for Flat-tiki ‘Carbon’/added to milled (dried) ‘activated biochar’ for the Kon-Tiki 1.2m/1.65m)

 

  • 2*20l plastic buckets

  • aquarium pump (AC/DC eg. mains/run off solar generator)

  • PVC tea bag stand

  • 4*tea bag/laundry bag

  • Microscope (Soil Food Web Institute + online microscope course) eg. mains/run off solar generator

 

Additional ingredients for Permafert slurry (for Flat-Tiki ‘Carbon’/'The Permastove V3')

 

  • sea minerals eg. liquid kelp, SEA-90

  • carbohydrates eg.molasses

  • nutrients eg.blood and bone, NPKS

 

The Permachar Nursery (TPN)

 

  • 100mm pots, potting mix (with 5% milled biochar)

  • Seeds eg. Eden Seeds – nut trees, fruit trees, acacias, vegetables, herbs

  • Mist bottle (for seeds before sprouting)

  • 10 litre Portable weed sprayer (for watering seedlings after sprouting)

  • Brix refractometer/spectrometer (beta) (bionutrient.org)

 

Greenhouse

 

  1. 5*37 litre clear/transparent plastic containers (Bunnings) OR

  2. CarboPIU A shaped tunnel with triangles cut at the end, A shaped PVC frame OR

  3. CarboPIU boxes

 

Water filtration

*Aqueous Solutions handbook, for irrigation

 

  • HDPE #2 plastic barrels

  • biochar

  • gravel

  • sand

  • PVC fittings

  • pipes

*point of use (PoU) for potable water...the 'Permafilter'

-see 'Permafilter' page

 

Household

 

  • tent(s) (thelevelmarket.com), stretches/sheets,blankets, pillows

  • solar showers

  • biochar toilets (Bill and Melissa Gates Foundation)/self-composting toilets (Humanure handbook)

  • 5*10 litre heavy duty plastic buckets with steel handles/crockery/eating implements/plates, bowls/steel saucepans/wok,steel wool,biodegradeable detergent

 

The Energy Kit (TEK)

 

The 'Permastove' V3 (beta) TLUD/centrifugal USB fan OR 'Permastove' V4 TLUD (beta, no fan)

/26,800mAh USB A/USB C Li ion/?graphene power bank, 2*LED lights, 2*USB extension leads, PV solar panel eg Nomad 14/20W (or possibly hybrid with power bank), 6.5” smartphone (min specs 4/64 with microSD up to 1Tb)

 

+

 

pelletiser/pellet mill eg.FY-120 OR pellets – rice husk/sawdust/coffee pulp/bamboo fibre and many other feedstocks