3 levels of Carbon action

3 levels of Carbon action in order of priority (not a triage)
1. C emission prevention at the source ('Prevention')
2. C emission removal with possible cogeneration ('Removal')
3. C emission mitigation ('Mitigation')

All 3, 'Prevention, Removal and Mitigation') need to be integrated into an adaptation response at all scales, which could require a 'Climate Plan' for this strategy to be effective.


The Australian Gov needs to shift climate and energy policies from doing more harm than good to doing more good than harm. A complete fossil 'phase out' should be on the table for a 'fossil free future' that is possible, though a mind boggling proposition. Complexity and difficulty is a challenge but not impossible to work with. The Gov can regulate, provide incentives and disincentives and tax but ultimately most climate action comes from every consumer choice that together have a collective impact on climate and the Earth's ability to survive. Existing and especially new fossil infrastructure and supply limits choices at the large-scale system level to 'phase out' the fossil and transition to renewables. A moratorium on new fossil expansions and projects (which I call the 'Ancient sunlight lever') may not go far enough for what is needed to achieve a 'safe climate'.



An example of C emission removal with cogeneration value adds could be biochar (C removal->Carbon Removal Marketplace + multiple applications) plus possible cogeneration such as power, heat, wood vinegar etc. Divestment from fossil and investment in C removal tech producing Biochar is the best use of money/bang for buck I can possibly think of ATM (and goes well beyond dubious offsetting programs). Yes, there are other technologies to remove C but Biochar is the safest (if tech is operated correctly), cleanest (with EBC certified tech), most affordable (at different scales with some variation between tech), most Democratised (eg.Kon-Tiki kilns and TLUD stoves) and most useful (multiple functions) technology to remove the excess C from the atmosphere and ultimately store it for hundreds of years, to Millennia and beyond. This would give Gaia more time to heal her life support systems that are quickly breaking.


Although C emission mitigation is important and shouldn't be underestimated it can be expensive eg.cleaning up dirty industry. There are plenty of options for smaller scale C emission mitigation too which can be affordable or even free in some cases eg.heat pumps.


The 'Time problem'

Although there are many drivers and sources of C emissions, fossil combustion is the main source. The time it takes converting phytoplankton + zooplankton (gas and oil) and vascular plants (coal) to fossil (millions of years), the time it takes to mine fossil at large scales (variable), the time it takes to burn fossil (a little) and the time (and effort) it takes to reverse/remove the C emissions from historical and new fossil combustion with C removal, such as pyrolysis of biomass to biochar (too long/not fast enough). Unlike biochar with multiple applications, fossil is a one trick pony - cheap energy, though the economics are shifting towards renewables as a cheaper and greener choice. It seems phytoplankton, a microalgae, is our fate - the past and the future.


'Net Zero Emissions'

I speculate that the Earth would need to go beyond 'Net Zero Emissions' (NZE) by 2050 in order to remove historical C emissions in the atmosphere, which include emissions between now and 2050. This goes against scientific consensus for NZE by 2050 in order to avoid average global temperatures exceeding 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels in order to maintain a 'Safe climate'. The timeline of 2035 for NZE seems to be popping up more and more though I'm not clear on the science behind this but from a 'Precautionary Principle' position it makes a lot of sense.  In Australia, according to the 'Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering', representing nearly 900 leading engineers and scientists, NZE by 2035 could be achievable with existing mature, low-carbon technology. I would go further and suggest that C removal technology could be added to the mix with BECCS and other Biochar tech also coming of age.






In situ and Ex situ Catalytic Pyrolysis of Microalgae and Integration With Pyrolytic Fractionation
!In situ and Ex situ Catalytic Pyrolysis
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